# Tip 1: How to calculate the capital investments

Before making any major investments in business, you need to calculate their potential effectiveness.Without these data, more likely in vain waste of large amounts of funds.capital investments?
Guide
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Measuring the effectiveness of capital investments carried out at all stages of planning.When designing any object capital efficiency is determined by two digital indicators (ratios) - General and comparative economic efficiency of capital investments.At the same time, the overall cost-effectiveness, as a rule, is a relative value - the ratio of effect to the right to obtain it costs.
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Together with the cost-effectiveness ratio, calculate payback for future capital investments.
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Determination of the effectiveness of investments is determined using the following formula: E = P / K, where E - efficiency investments, and P - the estimated profit for the period (quarter, year, five years, a longer period).It - it's your capital investments at the beginning of the construction and
development of the enterprise.
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If you want investing a large sum of investment in production, will complicate the formula.It is as follows: E = (C - C) / K, where E - efficiency of the company, C - the price of the annual output of goods (excluding taxes), C - cost of goods produced.
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To calculate the trade formula takes the form: E = (N - S) / K.N - is the sum of trade margins, and the letter and - is the total cost to operate.
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Calculate the payback of your capital investments.It is calculated as the ratio of the volume investments capital investments to profit in several formulas: T = K / P (general formula), T = R / (C - C) (in production) and T = K / (N - And) (trade).
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results of calculating the efficiency, map with standard indicators of possible efficiency or exactly the same figures for the earlier period.Capital investments can be considered cost-effective if the result of computing the results of measurements overall efficiency are not following regulations.

# Tip 2: What is the capital investment

Capital investments - is part kapitaloobrazuyuschih investment, a necessary condition for the normal functioning of the company.They also are called investments in fixed assets.

## Types of investments

Capital investments are long-term investments that can provide returns in the future.This, for example, R & D costs.You can select the following types of investments: construction of facilities, expansion of the company through the introduction of new production facilities, renovation (reorganization without the introduction of new capacities) and retooling (introduction of new equipment, modernization).Faster economic returns are investments for reconstruction and technical re-equipment.This requires smaller investments and operations are carried out in a short time.

organization may carry out capital investments not only in production but also in human capital.This, for example, the costs of skills development and productivity.In this case, the costs can be compensated by an increase in income of the organization in the future.

terms of technological structure distinguish investments in active and passive elements of fixed capital.Passive are those who are not directly involved in the production, but creating the necessary conditions for it.This, for example, investments in buildings and structures.

By appointment capital investments are subdivided into production (machines, equipment) and non-production (of the building).

By way of implementation of capital investment can be carried out by the economic way (on their own) or by contract (with the involvement of third parties).

In terms of sources of investment capital investments made by its own funds (in deductions from income, depreciation, due to the share premium, charitable contributions), and borrowed funds (loans, accounts payable).Also among the sources of funding can act budgetary subsidies and foreign investment.

## capital efficiency

Before making capital investments should always be assessed their effectiveness in economic and technological terms.In particular, it produced a feasibility study, which includes the development of production capacities and market research;forecasting financial results of investments, as well as general economic analysis.

The analysis draws conclusions regarding the changes in the various indicators of this activity.In particular, the additional yield on the ruble of capital investments.It is calculated by the formula: (total production with additional investment - the production at the initial investment) / (total capex).

analyzed Another indicator - lower cost per ruble of capital investments.It is calculated as the volume of production after capital expenditures * (unit cost at source - When making investments) / (total capex).Accordingly, the payback period can be calculated using the inverse formula: (total capex) / production volume after capital expenditures * (unit cost at source - When making investments).

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