- - surveying compasses or roulette
- - a topographical map;
- - level;
- - paper and pencil.
most convenient way to determine the slope - leveling.This tool allows to determine the distance between the desired points, and the height of each relative to the surface level of the earth.Modern digital levels come with storage devices.To determine the slope just have to find the difference between them.
formula for calculating the slope in percentage in this case can be expressed as a simple fraction .Chislitel it is the difference in
height, and the denominator - the distance between them.All this is multiplied by 100%.Thus, the formula looks like this: i = Δh / l * 100%, where Δh - the difference between the marks, l - distance, ai - bias.
However, not always a good idea to buy a fairly complicated and expensive tools.Much more often we have to use the means that are available.Since such situations often encountered during the summer work.Select two points, the level of which you are aware.They may be, for example, are indicated on the layout area, which is drawn in broken area.Maybe it would be handy large-scale map, where the designations are often also the height.In section mark these points pegs and measure the distance between them using a surveying compass.Then use the same formula as for the use of leveled.The distance should be expressed in meters.
If you need to determine the slope of a topographic map, look closely at the mark.There's bound to have a horizontal and a mark.Horizontals in topography called trail crossing the physical surface of the Earth to its surface-level and all points one way or another have the same horizontal height of the absolute value.Mark expresses the numerical value of the height of a particular point.In the lower right corner of the topographic map is always schedule foundations, on which you can very quickly determine the angle of inclination.
When you work with a topographic map, note a few things.Mark the point at the next get to it horizontally.If the point is on the line itself, the numerical value of its mark coincides exactly with the specified value.For points located between the contours, the method of interpolation.In the simplest case it is just average.Calculate distance scale.Find the ratio of the difference between the marks and the distance between the points and multiply the fraction by 100%.
on maps top figures mark pointing upward relief.
- slopes percentage