# Tip 1: How to convert geographic coordinates

coordinates of the object can be recorded in several ways: in degrees, minutes and seconds (the old method), in degrees and minutes to decimal and in degrees with a decimal fraction (modern version).Today, all three methods are used, creating the need for translation of geographic coordinates from one system to another.
you need
• - coordinates in a form of writing;
• - Calculator;
• - software for translation and computer.
Guide
1
If you are given the coordinates in degrees with a decimal fraction, convert them into degrees and minutes.First, calculate latitude.For this number before the comma or rewrite, it is the amount of degrees.Then turn the fractional part in the Degree: multiply it by 60. The resulting number will be the minutes of your latitude.Perform the same operation with the longitude of the point.Record the coordinates of 12 ° 45.32N, 31 ° 51.06'E.
2
the same coordinates can be converted to degrees with minutes and seconds.Integer degrees in this case remains the same
.First, count the number of minutes for this number after the decimal point, multiply by 60. Rewrite the integer part of the result, and with fractional perform the same operation - multiply it by 60. As a result, you get the value of degrees, minutes and seconds with a fractional part.Record the result as a 22 ° 15'20.9916 "N, 17 ° 35'3.6338" E.
3
If you, on the contrary, it is necessary to convert coordinates from degrees in decimal, proceed as follows.Divide the minutes indicated as a decimal, 60, as a result you get the fractional part of the number of degrees.Record the result as 55.755831 °, 37.617673 °.
4
to transform coordinates from the minutes and seconds to decimal, do so.Begin with the end: first, to set the second minute, dividing them by 60. Record the value of the result in the form of degrees and minutes specified with a decimal fraction.Then move to minute degrees, and dividing them by 60. The result is a desired value of the coordinates in degrees.
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If you need to translate coordinates from one system to another often enough, use the special software, you can download them to your computer, or use online.

# Tip 2: How to recalculate coordinates

Before the advent of satellite navigation systems in Russian, by the nature of its activities not related to geodesy and cartography, the relocation of origin do not usually arise.In the Soviet system there was a card standards.Then it becomes available Western paper maps, but now many people use the network, or even publicly available navigation devices.And it turned out that different countries use different systems, and coordinates need to recalculate.
you need
• - geographical map;
• - GPS-navigator;
• - computer;
• - program PHOTOMOD GeoCalculator.
• - table SK42toWGS84.xls.
Guide
1
Look what country and what time issued card.In different cases, the land was taken for various geometric body.For older maps our planet is often taken for a ball, and this form is quite conventional.
2
More precisely corresponds to the shape of the Earth's ellipsoid.To visualize the surface of a site, take a biaxial ellipsoid.Slide it and turn to a piece of his imaginary shell as accurately match the surface of the earth in your country or in your region.This is the method most often used in cartography.
3
determine the angle and the distance at which you move the ellipsoid with respect to the original, you will receive a datum that is a factor which has been adopted for the country.Options ellipsoid enough.
4
For the standard system adopted by ITRE - "International terrestrial reference frame."Attached to her US and Russian the WGS "PP" - "The position of the Earth."All of them repeatedly changed and become more accurate.Now they are almost sovpadayut.Uchtite that coordinates in the reference system designed to link the different datums are measured in meters rather than in degrees like on the old maps.
5
Each country has its base point.This facility is known to all, coordinates which can be determined by astronomical methods.From it built geodetic network.For this there are different types of theodolites which can measure angles.This is called triangulation method.
6
To calculate the coordinates of , you need to know the datum for the country.Given in degrees coordinates translate in a Cartesian system.Rotate and slide the system, taking into account the performance datum.Vychislite coordinates and ellipsoid apply them again in degrees.It is used either Gelmerta semiparametric transformation formula or formula Molodensky which set five parameters.In the first case it is necessary to know the three parameters for the displacements and the angles and scale factor.To translate the coordinates back to degrees, you need to know the degree of compression of the ellipsoid and the polar diameter.In every country, there are standards to a conversion.
7
When using navigator did not need to manually recount.You need to know the coordinates WGS three points and the data ellipsoid.Translate coordinates can use the computer program.For example, distributed under a free software InvMol or OziExplorer.Create datum specifying the parameters of the ellipsoid.As the coefficients put down zeros.Fasten the card to the datum.
8
Find three points and in the same datum enter their coefficients.Find coordinates relevant points in WGS.This can be done, for example, via GoogleEarth, if there is no possibility to carry out measurements on the spot from a browser.
9
Recalculate readings per second.To this must be multiplied by 3600 degrees, minutes - 60 slozhit.Vvedite all data in the program.You coefficients are obtained, which must be entered instead of zeros in datum.Do it and restart the program.Check coincidence points.
10
Program PHOTOMOD GeoCalculator also distributed free of charge.To use it, you need to know which system set coordinates and what they need to be translated.Data can be downloaded text file properly prepare it.The document consists of four columns, which indicate the name, latitude, longitude, and height of a given point.The columns are used as separators comma and integer and fractional part of a number separated by dots.Correct coordinate system can be chosen in a special window.You get not only the data you need, but also the date for the country, the full name of the coordinate system, the data on the initial meridian, etc.
Sources:
• Higher Geodesy - coordinate recalculation
Sources:
• translation coordinates

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