- used for the construction of lightweight structures made of prefabricated elements, or using local building materials.When choosing the type of country house on the structures there is a problem - use a log house or build a house of brick or cinder.Prefabricated panel houses sold in kit and in some cases installed manufacturing organization.
- Advantages and disadvantages:
- made log advantages:
- - cheaper (excluding non-forested areas), brick houses solid masonry
- - the possibility of installation of foundations on poles
- - lower thermal conductivity at the same wall thickness as compared with stoneand cinder
- - it protected from moisture even when heating cold house
- - rapid heating Disadvantages:
- - lack of fire resistance
- - less durability compared to the stone house
- - need good protection from rain, coloring parts protectionsnow lower crowns log and forceps (face walls of the attic)
- Brick and shlakoblochnogo Benefits:
- - Fire
- - durability
- - good sound insulation
- - the possibility of the device deep underground Disadvantages:
- - more wooden house
- - the need for the device strip foundation
- - high labor intensity of construction and finishing
- - possible appearance of damp, especially during the cold heating home
- - a longer warm-up at home, the need for heating and for the temporary reduction of the temperature.
Foundation.Choosing the type of foundation, the depth of its inception require careful attention and knowledge of the soil properties.One important factor is the strength of the base ground vody.Neobhodimo promerzaniya.Samye know the depth of the best rock and semi osnovaniya-, coarse, coarse sand, dry clay soils.Not suitable as a basis peat bogs or silty sand with a mixture of clay and silt, which in wet form quicksand.When unsuitable soils need to be replaced sand pillows coarse sand (or a trench dug in the sand pit is placed in layers of 15-20 cm, ram and watered).Depth of laying the foundation should be at least 0.5 m. Of sand (fine, silty), sandy loam, clay loam, and takes into account the level of groundwater.If the groundwater level is lower than 2 m from the depth of freezing, lay the foundation for at least 70 cm from the planning mark grunta.Esli groundwater level is closer than 2 m to a depth of frost penetration, reaches or exceeds it, the depth of laying the foundation should not beless than the estimated depth of freezing-1.5;1.7 m (depending on construction sites).The most acceptable is the foundation or columnar foundation of rubble concrete of coarse gravel.On one part cement add 7-9 parts sand, one part water and mix thoroughly.Stone trenched layers up to 30 cm, water solution and ramming.The 10-15 cm above the ground and below the floor level is necessary to arrange a waterproofing from two layers of rolled materials (roofing, roofing, asphalt).Alternatively arranged cement thickness of 2 cm - one part cement, two parts sand, one part water.When the device strip foundation or brick Zabirko between pier foundation is necessary to provide holes 15h25 cm for ventilation underground.They have one against the other in the opposite cap.Around the foundation needs to be done blind area width of 1 m from the oily clay with a slope from the house.
cellar.The necessary construction in the country house is a cellar.At a high level of groundwater is necessary to provide reliable waterproofing of its floor and walls.It is desirable to resolve this issue before the construction of the house .This will facilitate all the work.In the open pit is arranged the base of crushed stone, quarry stone, red brick thickness of 20-40 cm. Compaction compacted and poured layer of concrete.On the hot asphalt concrete is glued two layers of roofing material.The length of the blades of roofing material should be above the groundwater level to cover the outside walls and cellars.The walls are spread directly on the inclined roofing material, on the outside coated with hot bitumen up to 2 times, which is glued to the outside fabric derived roofing.Sutures close overlapping webs of tar board.Interior finishing cellar cement plaster recommended by a metal grid.It should not only attach to the walls and the floor cellar.Plasterer cellar cement-sand mortar, and then the "Iron" (wet plaster sprinkled with a thin layer of dry cement and pulverized with a trowel).With dry soils or protected against the penetration of atmospheric water waterproofing can be only interior finishing (taping the floor and walls with roofing felt excluded. It is used another way: waterproofing is arranged on the floor, the plant from the outside is 20-30 cm on the cellar walls. The walls are coated with bitumen.Remember: Only the walls cellars spread of red brick.
walls. The walls must be protected from atmospheric osadkov.Steny should start at 30 cm above ground level. The parts that protrude from the plane of the wall more than 5 cmspillways are supplied. Removal of the eaves, which protect the walls from rain, up to 50-70 cm. Exterior finish or wall covering. Frame walls with insulation slab made of reeds or straw can be plastered, covered with clay and whitewash, oblitsevat brick, to sheathe asbofanernym sheet. Brick FrontIt must have a solid foundation. After 5-6 rows of masonry it is necessary to reinforce the wall with two metal rods 2-3 mm thick.Secure the rods to the wall 6-millimeter rods at a distance of 1 m from each other in 5-6 rows of masonry.When the outer skin of the planed boards and asbofanery lap top row goes to the bottom line.This reception is good protects the wall from rain.Decking "lining" gives the aesthetic appearance and vertical paneling.
Wall insulation.By means of plate, rolled and loose materials.Effective slag mats or glass wool and wood fiber soft plita.Dlya backfill can use a variety of materials: slag, expanded clay, vermiculite, pumice, sawdust, chips, straw and reed chaff, etc.Organic materials must be pre-antiseptic.Among the organic materials can be manufactured 50x50 or 70x70 plate depending on the spacing studs with a thickness of 10 cm. For this, 100 kg of insulation must be 150 kg gypsum 250 liters of water.Cooked to moisten the dry mixture and stir until smooth.Lay in a wooden collapsible forms.Dry under a canopy.Gypsum can be replaced by clay or clay dough, lime or lime putty.At 100 kg of insulation should be 300 kg of lime or glinyannogo test, and the water not more than 200 liters.This mixture can be laid in the spaces between the lining of the walls-not making from her plate.An important component of insulation vapor barrier is wooden walls.Used roll materials: asphalt, polyethylene film, etc.Vapor always placed underneath the inner lining of the walls.
interior.Natural wood, whitewashed lime plaster, brickwork with pointing hide some of the building and give the interior a striking appearance.Decorating the walls and ceiling wallpaper requires a more thorough podgotovki.Oboi capricious in operation.When dampness of the walls, they exfoliate, burst upon drying.
Paul.On manufacture and floor insulation also need to vnimanie.Ulozhit "black" floor slab or nestroganyh boards.All subfloor cracks fluff glinoy.Ulozhit any type of insulation (sand, slag, etc.).Then put a clean floor with rallying and fit all the rules.For the rigidity of the floor cross-section beams 14h9 and 16x9 cm with the distance between joists of 0.6 or 1 m.
Attic.Attic rather protect from overheating in the summer than in the cold rainy weather.If the attic is located on a terrace or veranda, you need to warm and the floor.When the attic insulation to a height of 2.2 m must be made podshivnoy horizontal ceiling.It will create an additional thermal barrier at the top of the roof.Loggia in the attic should not do.This can lead to premature failure house .Especially in a humid climate.The distance between the rafters is taken in 90-100 cm. For the majority of roofs (of rolled materials, asbofanery, steel) is the best kind of lathing solid wood base.It will ensure the longevity of the roof.
Engineering equipment.Summer houses electrified.Used for heating heating stoves for solid fuel, built of brick.Possible to organize local water otoplenie- build coils in a furnace or apply subcompacts boilers for solid toplive.Dlya cooking you can use the gas-cylinder unit.If the sample project that option is not necessary to develop and agree on a simple project with district organizations of the gas sector.Wardrobe with gas cylinders should be placed outside on the north side of the house.The tightness of the gas connections and wiring can be checked with a soap solution (check fire may cause an explosion).
- children build a house with his own hands