number of combined troops of the French army to march on Russia amounted to 685,000, the border with Russia transferred 420 000. It includes the troops of Prussia, Austria, Poland and the Confederation of the Rhine.
At the end of the military campaign, Poland was to receive territory of modern Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania.Prussia depart the territory of present Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in part.In addition, France wanted Russia to help in the campaign against India, the former at the time the largest British colony.
On the night of June 24 in the new style of the advanced Grand Army crossed the border of Russia in the area of the river Neman.Guard Cos
sack units retreated.Alexander I made one last attempt to conclude a peace treaty with the French.In a personal message to the Russian Emperor Napoleon was the requirement to clear the Russian territory.Emperor Napoleon replied categorically refused in an insulting manner.
At the beginning of the campaign, the French were the first difficulties - shortages of fodder, which led to the massive loss of horses.The Russian army under the leadership of Generals Barclay de Tolly and Bagration because of the large numerical superiority of the enemy was forced to retreat deep into the country, without giving a general engagement.Near Smolensk 1 and 2 of the Russian armies came together and stopped.August 16, Napoleon ordered the storming of Smolensk.After a fierce battle, which lasted two days, Russian blew up powder magazines, set fire to Smolensk, and retreated to the east.
fall of Smolensk has created a murmur of all Russian society-Chief Barclay de Tolly.He was accused of treason, surrender of the city: "The minister is the guest directly to Moscow" - angrily wrote Bagration from the headquarters in St. Petersburg.The Emperor Alexander has decided to replace the Chief of the General Barclay Kutuzov.Arriving in the army on August 29 Kutuzov, to the surprise of the whole army, gave the order to retreat further east.By doing this step, Kutuzov knew Barclay rights Napoleon destroy long campaign, the remoteness of troops from their supply bases, and so on, but he knew that Moscow give up without a fight people will not allow it.Therefore, September 4th Russian army stopped near the village of Borodino.Now the ratio of Russian and French armies were nearly equal to 120 000 and 640 guns Kutuzov and 135 000 soldiers and 587 guns Napoleon.
August 26 (September 7), 1812, according to historians, the whole turning point of the Napoleonic campaign.Borodino battle lasted about 12 hours, the losses on both sides were enormous: Napoleon's army lost about 40,000 soldiers, the army Kutuzov about 45 000. Despite the fact that the French were able to push back Russian troops and Kutuzov was forced to retreat to Moscow, in fact, lost the battle of BorodinoIt was not.
September 1, 1812 held a council of war at Fili, where Kutuzov took responsibility and ordered the generals to leave Moscow without a battle and retreat in the Ryazan road.The next day, the French army entered Moscow empty.At night, Russian saboteurs set fire to the city.Napoleon had to leave the Kremlin and to order the partial withdrawal of troops from the city.A few days Moscow was burned almost to the ground.
Partisan detachments, led by commanders Davydov, Figner and others, destroyed food warehouses, intercepted the convoy of fodder on the way the French.In Napoleon's army famine.Kutuzov's army turned to the Ryazan direction and blocked the approach to the old Kaluga road along which Napoleon hoped to pass.So load ingenious plan Kutuzova "make French retreat along the old Smolensk road."
Exhausted coming winter, hunger, loss of guns and horses, Grand Army suffered a crushing defeat at Vyazma November 3, during which the French lost about 20 thousand people.In the ensuing 26 November Battle of Berezina Napoleon's troops fell by 22 000 December 14, 1812 the remains of the Grand Army crossed the Niemen, and then retreated to Prussia.Thus, the War of 1812 ended with a crushing defeat of the army of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Tip 2: How to celebrate the Day of the officer in the Russian
last few years on August 21, the Day of Russian officer.While this is an informal professional holiday, but in all fairness it should be celebrated across the country with congratulations from senior Russian officials, concerts, festivals and other colorful activities.After the officers - the backbone of any army.It is they who are responsible for its general condition, compliance with strict discipline, the level of combat training.No officers can not be defense of the state.
first officers foreigners appeared in Russia in the 30s of the XVII century under Tsar Mikhail Romanov - grandfather of Peter the Great.They served in the so-called shelves of the new system, which should have been gradually replaced by a Royal shelves.After a bad start of the Northern War (1700-1721 biennium), Peter I began acquisition of new regiments, appointed to the officer positions of Russian noblemen.To make this service the prestigious Peter gave officers greater privileges.For example, even the owner of the lowest officer rank (lieutenant) had the right to hereditary nobility.The civilian official to qualify for the same benefits, was promoted to a much higher rank.
Russian officer corps covered itself with undying glory in the battles of the Great Northern War, in the campaigns of the famous general Suvorov, in the war of 1812, during the defense of Sevastopol in 1854-55.and many other companies.A fateful role in his life played the First World War, when the cadre officers suffered huge losses.To make them officer ranks began to massively assign civilian people who had education in the amount of grammar school or a secondary school.Of course, not all of them were fit for military service, able to maintain discipline and order among his subordinates.This was one of the causes of the February Revolution of 1917, and subsequently - the October Revolution.
was abolished even the word "officer", replaced the word "commander."Shoulder straps have replaced tabs marks the difference in the form of triangles, squares or rectangles.Higher commanders (brigades, divisions, corps, armies) had the insignia on the lapels as diamonds.Rod troops differed in color buttonholes.
This lasted until the middle of the Great Patriotic War, during which the Soviet soldiers showed heroism and fortitude.A huge role in repelling the invasion of Hitler's Germany played Corps commander of the Red Army.To mark his achievements and to raise the prestige, in early 1943 issued a decree according to which, the commanders began to be called back by officers.There were also restored pre-revolutionary insignia, including shoulder straps.
this holiday is not for entertainment events.However, some military garrisons Day Officer arrange a variety of activities on the territory of the military unit.For example, the Air Force will organize the flights that day for the residents of the garrison commanders attracted to this flying club.Also in the House of officers carried out the concert program, where are the young dancers, actors, and the officers themselves.
- War of 1812 briefly