beginning of the war
main causes of the war were: the policy of Napoleon, which he spent in Europe, taking into account the interests of Russia and the reluctance of the latter to tighten the continental blockade Britain.This war Bonaparte preferred to call himself the second Polish war or a "Russian company" as the main purpose of a military invasion, he considered the revival of the Polish independent state.In addition, Russia demanded the withdrawal of French troops from Prussia, who were there in spite of Tilsit treaty, and 2 times rejected offers of marriage to Napoleon's Russian princesses.
After the invasion of the French rather quickly, from June to September 1812, was able to move into the territory of Russia.The Russian army fought retreated to Moscow itself, giving on the outskirts of the capital of the famous Batt
le of Borodino.
transformation of the war into the domestic
In the first stage of the war it certainly had not been a national and especially national.The onset of Napoleon's army was seen by a simple Russian people is quite ambiguous.Due to rumors that Bonaparte intended to liberate people from land, to give him the land and liberty among the common people had serious collaborationist sentiments.Some are even going to the troops, they attacked the Russian government forces and were caught hiding the forest landowners.
advance of Napoleon's troops into the country accompanied by a rise in violence, the fall of the discipline, the fires in Moscow and Smolensk, pillaging and looting.All this has led to what ordinary people rallied in resisting the invaders, began forming militias and guerrilla.Farmers everywhere began to refuse to supply the enemy with food and fodder.With the advent of the peasant guerrilla groups began to be accompanied by unprecedented cruelty and violence on both sides. Battle of Smolensk, which destroyed a considerable town, marked the deployment of people's war with the enemy of the Russian people, it immediately felt like ordinary French supply vessels, and Napoleon's marshals.
By the time the French troops in the rear has been active volatile Army guerrilla units.It is composed of the common people and the nobles, and the military, these groups seriously annoyed invaders prevented the supply and destroyed much stretched lines of communication of the French.
As a result, in the struggle against the invaders united all the representatives of the Russian people: the peasants, the military, the landowners, the nobles, which led to the fact that the War of 1812 became known as the domestic. only during his stay in Moscow, the French army on the actions of the guerrillas had lost more than 25 thousand people.
The war ended with the defeat and the almost complete destruction of Napoleon's troops, with the liberation of Russian land and transfer the theater of operations in Germany and the Duchy of Warsaw.The main reasons for the defeat of Napoleon in Russia are: participation in the war of all segments of the population, courage and heroism of the Russian soldiers, complete unwillingness of French troops to conduct combat operations in a large area, harsh Russian climate and generalship Kutuzov commander in chief and generals.
- War of 1812