In the first few years of the XX century an extremely aggravated the political situation in the Russian Empire.Vestiges of serfdom hindered the development of relations in the countryside, which remained landlordism.The country is almost entirely lacking political freedoms.Growing crisis in ethnic relations.The rapid development of capitalism intensified the exploitation of the workers, who are increasingly claimed their rights, arranging strikes and strikes. One of the reasons the first Russian Revolution was the defeat of Tsarist Russia in the war with Japan.
Liberal-minded political circles in 1904 put forward a proposal
to introduce the country's constitution that would limit the power of the autocracy.The king responded by categorically refused.The last straw was the shooting of the tsar's troops peaceful march 9 January 1905.The demonstrators gathered to file a petition to Nicholas II, which contained the requirement to carry out democratic changes in Russia.However, the demonstrators had inflicted massacre that rocked the country and was one of the reasons for revolutionary action.
February 1917: the bourgeois revolution
Revolution of 1905-1907 ended in failure, and did not allow of class, economic and political contradictions.The revolutionary movement began to decline, Russia is the time of reaction and political repression.But the problems remained and required solutions.In 1914, Russia entered the imperialist war, which has shown a complete inability of the tsarist regime to fulfill military tasks.
the beginning of 1917, the situation is extremely tense.Across the country shuts down businesses, resulting in the tsarist army lacked arms and food.Came the collapse of the transport system, the railways actually not cope with the traffic.The Social Democrats and other left-wing forces tried to use this situation, people's discontent, sending it to the struggle against the autocracy.
Amid falling prestige of royal power manifested anti-war sentiments of the masses.Add to this the critical situation of the peasantry and the working class, which bore the brunt of untold hardships of war.Events of the second Russian revolution took place very quickly.They began with a series of strikes and general political strike, which took place under the slogan of overthrowing the autocracy. result of the February Revolution was the abdication of Nicholas II by the authorities.The country entered a period of democratic change.
After the success of the February revolution in the country actually come diarchy.Steel Authority of People's Power Councils, and the dictatorship of the bourgeois Provisional Government exercised.Bourgeois circles were in favor of the continuation of the imperialist war and in every way to postpone the decision as relevant to the peasants of the land question.The economic situation in Russia has continued to be critical.Expectations of the masses did not materialize. creates objective prerequisites for the of the bourgeois revolution into the proletarian, which would lead to the proletariat in power in alliance with the peasantry.
At the beginning of July 1917 there were major disturbances, participants demanded the offset of the Provisional Government and unconditional transfer of all power to the Soviets.By decree of the government actions of the people were suppressed by force.The country began the arrests of the Bolsheviks, was reinstated the death penalty.In fact, the dual power ended with the victory of the bourgeois Provisional Government.
Bolshevik Party, pushed underground was active agitation and propaganda, calling on the masses to overthrow the counter-revolutionary Provisional Government and the establishment of workers' power.The future socialist revolution has been prepared according to the rules of military art.It is the careful preparation of armed insurrection allowed the Bolsheviks relatively easily take power and move the interim government, which by the end of October 1917 was no longer able to control the situation.