General characteristics of Stalinism
Stalinism different prevalence of command-administrative methods of government, merging the Communist Party and the state, as well as strict control over all aspects of social life.Many researchers believe that Stalinism - a form of totalitarianism.
On the one hand, the period when Stalin was in power was marked by the victory in the Great Patriotic War, the forced industrialization, the transformation of the USSR into a superpower, and the expansion of its military potential, increased geopolitical influence of the Soviet Union in the world, the establishment of communist regimes in Eastern Europe.On the other hand, such an extremely negative totalitarianism, mass repressions, forced collectivization, destruction of chur
ches, the creation of the Gulag camps.The number of victims of Stalinist repression has exceeded millions of people, destroyed the nobility, officers, businessmen, millions of peasants.
apogee of Stalinism
Despite the fact that it was in 1945-1953.was palpable influence of the democratic momentum in the wake of the victory in the Great Patriotic War, and there were some tendencies towards weakening of totalitarianism, it is this period is called the apogee of Stalinism.After strengthening the position of the USSR in the international arena and strengthen its influence in Eastern Europe, Stalin's personality cult ("Great Leader") reached its peak.
formally been made some steps towards democratization - terminated a state of emergency, congresses renewed socio-political organizations, the monetary reform was carried out and canceled the card.But in practice, there was increase in the repressive apparatus and the ruling party domination has only intensified.
During this period, the main blow fell on the repression became a German prisoner of the Soviet military (2 million of them were in the camp), and upon the inhabitants of the territories occupied by the Germans - in the North Caucasus, the Crimea, the Baltic States, Western Ukraine and Belarus.Whole nations have been accused of collaborating with the Nazis (the Crimean Tatars, Chechens, Ingush) and deported.The number of GULAG has increased markedly.
blows of repression were inflicted on members of the military command (the Companions of Marshal Zhukov), party and economic elite ("Leningrad Affair"), artists (critic Anna Akhmatova, Zoshchenko, Shostakovich, S.Prokofiev, etc.), scientists (geneticists, kibernatikam etc.), the Jewish intelligentsia.The latest act of repression was emerged in 1952, "doctors' case", accused of intentionally wrong treatment leaders.