Almost all the time that Chechnya is part of Russia, in its territory there were mass uprising, acted gangs and to carry out military and political retaliatory operations.Russian-Chechen conflict 1990.It began as a national conflict in the struggle for the independence of Chechnya even in the Soviet Union, during the period of so-called perestroika, in the 2nd half of 1980.

collapse of the USSR

It is the beginning of this period of change in the political and economic structure of the Soviet Union in many republics of the Union
intensified nationalist and separatist movements.In Chechnya, there were radical nationalists who managed to unite the uneducated, living the patriarchal life of ordinary people.A typical representative of the Chechen nationalist movement of the time is Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev - ethnic Chechen poet "of the people" educated leader of the Union of Writers.It Yandarbiyev persuaded General Dzhokhar Dudayev return to Chechnya from Estonia and the increasing pace to lead the nationalist movement.

main driving force and the separatist organization was established in 1990 All-National Congress of the Chechen People (NCCP), the head of which in 1991 became Dudayev.The main purpose of NCCP was way out of the republic from the USSR and the establishment of an independent Chechen state.All these events were accompanied by the emergence of a well-organized armed groups, mass genocide of the Russian population of the Republic and a huge number of casualties among the military and civilian law enforcement.

seizure of power separatists

Throughout 1991 management and nationalist leaders consciously and deliberately to destabilize the country, nurturing extremist moods.Almost immediately after the General Dudaev led NCCP, in the early summer of 1991, he proclaimed the independence of the Chechen Republic Nokhchi-cho, creating a dual power in the political contradictions torn Chechnya.This situation did not last long, September 6 in Chechnya under the leadership of Dudayev was a military coup.At the end of October 1991, Dzhokhar Dudayev, as a result of elections under the control of the separatists became the President of the Republic. According to data published by the Joint Force Headquarters in after the fighting, the loss of Russian troops reached 4103 killed, 1231 - Missing / deserted / prisoners, 19,794 were wounded.

All this has led to the fact that in early November, Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a decree on the introduction of the republic of emergency.Following the issuance of the decree and sign the situation in Chechnya escalated to the limit, the order was canceled just a few days after its signing.After that the Russian leadership took the decision to withdraw from the territory of military units and units of the Ministry of Interior, during which separatists actively seized and looted military warehouses.

actual independence of Chechnya and the beginning of the war

In the subsequent period from 1991 to 1994.Chechnya is in a state of de facto independence, is gradually sinking into chaos banditry, the Slave Trade, ethnic cleansing and the socio-economic crisis.Criminal lawlessness in the country aroused discontent among the people of the new government, in the wake of which was formed by anti-Dudayev opposition and the civil war began. After the conclusion of the ceasefire August 23, 1996 the troops as quickly as possible from September 21 to December 31, 1996 were withdrawn from Chechnya.Thus ended the first Chechen campaign.

December 1, 1994, Russian aircraft completely destroyed the aircraft was in the hands of the separatists.After 10 days of massive air strikes, President Yeltsin signed a decree № 2169 "On measures to ensure law and order and public security in the Chechen Republic."On the same day, December 11, 1994, Russian troops entered the territory of Chechnya, started the first Chechen war.