Background to the development of absolutism in Russia
The Russian absolutism developed under the specific conditions of serfdom and the village community, which at that time had undergone serious degradation.Not the least role in the development of Russian absolutism played politics reigning persons seeking to strengthen his power.
In the XVII century there would be significant contradictions between the urban population and the feudal lords.Emerging in the absolutism period for the decision of both internal and external problems of trying to encourage the development of industry and trade.Therefore, during the initial formation of the absolute power of the monarch in a confrontation with the Boyar aristocracy and ecclesiastical oppo
sition relies on the tops of tenements: merchants, servicemen class, the feudal nobility.
Becoming absolutism in Russia and promoted foreign economic reasons: the need to maintain the struggle for economic and political independence of the state and the possibility of access to the coast.More prepared to lead this struggle was the absolute monarchy, not a class-representative form of way of state power.
emergence of the Russian Empire, the absolute monarchy was caused by the foreign position of the country, the course of socio-economic development, the contradictions between the different classes of society, resulting in the class struggle, as well as the birth of bourgeois relations.
establishment of absolute monarchy
Development and formation of absolutism as the main form of government has led to the cancellation of the Zemsky Sobor in the second half of the XVII century, which limited the power of royal personages.King hollowed previously inaccessible to a significant financial independence, profiting from their own estates, customs duties and taxes with the enslaved peoples, developing trade taxes.The weakening of the political and economic role of the boyars resulted in the loss of value of the Boyar Duma.There has been an active submission process gosudarstvu.Takim clergy, the second half of the XVII century, Russia set an absolute monarchy with the Boyar Duma and the Boyar aristocracy, took final shape during the reign of Peter I, in the first quarter of XVIII century.
In the same period the Russian absolute monarchy received legislative consolidation.The ideological justification of absolutism was given in the book of Theophanes Prokopovich "The truth will monarch", created in accordance with the special instructions of Peter I.In October 1721, after the outstanding victory of Russia in the Great Northern War battles, spiritual Synod and the Senate favor Peter I the honorary title of "Father of the Fatherland, the Emperor of Russia."Russian State becomes an empire.
origin of absolutism in the Russian context, as well as in many other countries, it was quite natural process.However, between the absolute monarchies of different countries have both common and separate features, determined by local conditions of development of a state.
Absolutism different countries
example, in France and in Russia there was an absolute monarchy in the completed form in which the structures of the state apparatus there was no authority that could limit the power of regal.The absolutism of this form is characterized by a high degree of centralization of state power, the presence of numerous bureaucracy and powerful armed forces.England was characterized by incomplete absolutism.It had a Parliament, to a small extent still limiting the power of the ruler, local governments existed, there was a large standing army.In Germany, the so-called "princely absolutism" only contributed to further fragmentation of the feudal state.
Periods of absolutism in Russia
During its 250-year history of the Russian absolutism has undergone several changes.There are five major periods in the development of absolutism in the Russian context:
- the first stage - the current in the second half of the XVII century, along with the Boyar aristocracy and the Boyar Duma, the absolute monarchy;
- second - bureaucratic-aristocratic monarchy of the XVIII century;
- the third - the absolute monarchy of the first half of the XIX century, continuing up to the 1861 reform;
- the fourth stage - an absolute monarchy in the period from 1861 to 1904, during which the part of the autocracy was a step towards a bourgeois monarchy;
- the fifth - in the period from 1905 to February 1917, when the side of absolutism was taken another step towards a bourgeois monarchy.
absolute monarchy in Russia was overthrown by the events of the February 1917 revolution.
- development of absolutism in Russia in the XVIII century.