essence of the program "500 days»
August 30th, 1990 the initiative group of economists in the face of S. Shatalina, Yavlinsky, N. Petrakov, M. Zadornov and others created the document, the main idea of which was to preserve part of the SovietUnion republics in a soft entry into the free market and provide them with sovereignty.He proposed four stage program of reform:
1 stage.During the first 100 days (from October 1990) assumed privatization of state-owned land and real estate, shareholding companies and the creation of a reserve of the banking system;
Stage 2.In the next 150 days it had to happen price liberalization - the state is moving away from price controls, thus eliminated the obsolete state apparatus;
Stage 3.Another 150 days, duri
ng which on the background of the privatization, the free circulation of goods on the market and price liberalization to occur to stabilize the market, filling the state budget and increase the convertibility of the ruble;
Stage 4.In the past 100 days, all the previous steps should lead to economic recovery, the arrival of effective owners and the complete restructuring of state agencies.By February 18, 1992, this program was to be completed.
So, the creators of the program planned for 500 days to lay the foundations of a market economy.They understood that in such a short time it is impossible to turn the sluggish economy of the vast country to face the market so created a very mild version of the reform by the state, not private resources.Instead, Soviet citizens experienced the shock therapy.And the reasons for this were several.
reasons for the failure of the "500 days»
1. Inconsistency of political and economic action.Not aware of the need for urgent reform of the USSR Supreme Council tightened the discussion of the program, with the result that all planned before the end of 1990 were postponed.Instead of starting with the financial recovery, the government reformed the price, eventually transition to the market did not go through the stabilization of the ruble, and by hyperinflation.
2. Destruction of the Allied governments.The lack of unity in the actions of the Russian Federation and other republics has led to the fact that to implement the program with the participation of all economic entities was impossible.Republic headed for the office and in fact boycotted the reforms and the creation of a new economic union, which would become a full replacement of economic relations between the parts of the Soviet Union, giving the necessary information about the real situation in the country.As a result, economists have not been able to develop a proper stabilization measures.Implement the reform program "500 days" was possible only with the unanimous participation of all republics.
3. Omission of the time.The growing crisis tendencies in the country's leadership against inactivity economy has brought to the point of no return - the situation itself has dictated the need for decisive action.That is why even the adoption of the program is not saved to the economy - the time of gradual reform has been lost.
So parade of sovereignties, vacation prices, high inflation, the opposition political forces - is not possible to realize a smooth transition from a planned to a market economy and establish strong ties between the republics.As a result of required emergency resuscitation of the economy, which was called shock therapy.However, the developments of the program "500 days" was the basis for further reforms.