first printed book in the history of mankind
believed that the very first book was printed in China in 868, the year.Strictly speaking, it is not even a book in the usual sense, and has a roll of gray paper wrapped around a wooden framework.The book known as the "Diamond Sutra" (a better name - "Sutra of the Perfection of Wisdom, cut through the darkness of ignorance as lightning").It is a treatise on the virtues required for entry to the path of the righteous life - a kind of Buddhist Bible.This is not surprising because, as a rule, the first printed edition appeared religious texts, as they represent the most value for the people of those times.We know
even the name of the printer, make this a copy of the sacred sutras: Wang Ji.
type "Diamond Sutra" was the woodcut technique, that is the impression with a wooden board on which a knife cut letters.Typesetting printing technology has been at the moment for the Chinese is too time-consuming, because in their language - thousands of characters.
history knigopechati in Europe
first European printed books and printed by woodcut and called incunabula.The most famous of these was the so-called "Bible of the poor", printed in about 1423, the year.Incunabula came to our time a little.They were in many ways similar to the manuscripts as printers-ksigografy tried to imitate the script as closely as possible.Distrustful to all new citizens are not immediately recognized advantages of printed books and continued to appreciate much more texts manually copied in the monasteries.
real heyday came in the European press after the invention of Johann Gutenberg printing technology typesetting.In order to print a book, did not have to cut more than its text pages on wooden boards - printed proofs began composing, composed of individual letters-letters.The first printed book was the Gutenberg's 42-line Bible, published in 1455, the year.
Russian printed books
first Russian printed books appeared in the 50s of the XVI century and were created by woodcuts.The names of these books and the names of the publishers to the present day has not arrived.The first known Russian printer Ivan Fedorov has become.A huge amount of time, effort and skill, he has invested in two-color edition of the famous book "Acts of the Apostles", also known under the short title "apostle", which was published March 1, 1564
book contains highly illustrations that cut and etched himself Fedorov, fine screen, perfectly made fonts.The preparation of the "apostles" in the press took a year.Circulation was about 1,200 books.All their Fedorov printed his own.Later he also published the first Russian textbook known under the name of all "ABC", as well as several religious tracts and prayer.
Tip 2: The first printed book
By the middle of the XV century, when the rise of European cities, education and cultural development gave rise to the need for the mass production of books.Monks copyists, who have traditionally engaged in rewriting the books in their cells, could no longer meet the needs of his time.
invention of printing
invention of printing was the greatest discovery of mankind.I make it about 1445 resident of the German city of Mainz goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg (c. 1400-1468).
Gutenberg first in Europe to use a printing press for printing with metal movable type.
Furthermore the invention of the printing press, the invention of Gutenberg included are a number of other technical innovations.He invented the collapsible font foundry machine, special alloy for the manufacture of printed letters and even a special composition of the ink.
By 40th years of XV century.Historians attribute the first attempts at printing.Students and apprentices Gutenberg's invention quickly spread of his teacher on the European countries.
In the first half of the 50s in the city of Mainz, published the first printed book.It was beautifully published 42-page Bible, which was able to compete with the best manuscripts.It was called "Gutenberg Bible."
Traditionally, it is considered the starting point of the history of printing in Europe.
second - a 32-page Bible came about 1458-1460 years.and it was called "the bible of Bamberg."
Among the first books printed by Gutenberg, was "Donut", the initial grammar of the Latin language of the Roman author Elia Donata."Donut" was the first textbook for all literate people of the Middle Ages.
In the Middle Ages, Latin was the main language of science and has remained so for centuries.Thus, the "Donato" in the XV century.It was published a great many, but to this day in fragments came no more than 365 publications.
for books for elementary education were scholarly works.Roman writers published works: "Geography" of Strabo, "Natural History" Pliny, "Geography" Greek scholar Pliny.Popular "Elements of geometry" Euclid published 6-7 times per year.
published in the XV century.as works of ancient Greek and Roman writers: "The Iliad" and "Odyssey" of Homer, "Comparative biographies" Plutarch.Printed works of the authors of XIV-XV centuries .: "The Divine Comedy" by Dante, Petrarch and poems Francesco Villon, a collection of novels by Giovanni Boccaccio's "Decameron".
Books published before December 31, 1500, known as incunabula - "Lullaby of books."In the early years, they were similar to the hand-written books.Illustrations, caps, multicolor screen and ending at first was not published, and dorisovyvali.And only gradually gave way to a handwritten initials printed engravings, which were cut from the tree, and then copper.
In the first book, as in the manuscript, there was no title page.The name and the author points out in the end.Only by the end of the XV century.
all this information was taken out on the first page.
largest storage incunabula collected today in the British Museum in London, at the Library of Congress in Washington and the National Library in Paris.
is a collection of incunabula and in Russia.Stored in the department of rare books at the State Public Library named after MESaltykov-Shchedrin in Sank Petersburg.To store them in the last century was equipped with a "cabinet of Faust" in the style of a medieval library.
invention of printing has had and has today an undeniable influence on the development of all mankind.
- first printed books