concept is named for the prominent Renaissance author Niccolo Machiavelli.In his famous treatise "The Emperor" right hand ruler Lorenzo de 'Medici tells how to make a strong power.The ruler, according to Machiavelli, is not obliged to be guided by the norms of morality and ethics, the principle of force when necessary, fraud and treachery, is fundamental in the creation of a strong state.Machiavelli had a low opinion of human nature and thought that the interests of ordinary people can be neglected for the sake of prosperity of the state and its rulers

Almost immediately after this, as we would say today, a controversial work, "Machiavellian" came to be called selfish, selfish people neglecting ethics for their own purposes.But the utopian Tommaso Campanella, the term 'antimakiavellizm "as opposed to the principles of social order, as described in" The Prince. "

In modern political science literature "Machiavellianism" can be considered synonymous with the power structure, based on the manipulation of the mass consciousness.The literal perception of the tips that the author gives his Renaissance ruler, abhorrent to modern man.For example, today it is difficult to imagine the destruction of people in the occupied territory as a state policy, but in the XVI century, this was in order.

Psychologically lexicon the term "Machiavellianism", appeared in the 70s of the last century thanks to research by Richard Christy and Florence Grace.While working at Columbia University in the US, Christy and Grace have created a so-called MAC-scale and questionnaire to determine the level of the respondent on her.For those with the highest rates (rating 4 of poppy-scale) is characterized by emotional coldness, lack of empathy, suspiciousness, hostility, independence, freedom, the tendency to manipulate and persuasion.

Men often show a tendency to Machiavellianism than women;young (under 35) - more often than mature.The researchers note that Machiavellianism as a behavioral strategy for short-term contact to get something from another actor, but ineffective to establish long-term relationships.