# Tip 1: How to calculate the dynamics of

analysis of the dynamics of indicators begins with how they change (increase, decrease or remain the same) in both absolute and relative terms.To trace the change in time series in time, indicators are calculated: absolute change, a relative change, the pace of change.
Guide
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Note that all this could be basic, when the level of one period is compared with the level of the initial period, and the chain when compared to the level of two neighboring periods.
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The base absolute change (absolute increase) can be calculated as the difference between the particular and the first levels of the series: v (b) = V (i) - (1).It shows how the level of a particular period of more or less than the basic level.Chain absolute change - the difference between the concrete and the prior number: y (n) = V (i) - Y (i-1).It shows how many units of a particular period, the level of more or less than the previous one.Remember that between the base and the absolute change in the chain there is a relationship:
the sum of the absolute changes in the chain is the latest change in the baseline.
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In analyzing the dynamics of indicators you can calculate the relative change in the base (base growth rate).It is the ratio of a particular indicator to the first of a series of speakers: I (b) = V (i) / Y (1).Chain relative change - this relation is a particular number of previous level and: I (n) = Y (i) / Y (i-1).Relative change shows how many times the level of the series more than in the previous row or any part of it is.Relative change can be expressed as a percentage by multiplying the ratio by 100%.Between the chain and basic relative changes there is a relationship: the product chain relative changes is last baseline.
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In addition, the analysis of dynamics of indicators you can calculate the rate of change (growth rate) levels.This is a relative indicator which shows the percentage this figure is greater than or less than another, taken as the basis for comparison.It is determined by subtracting from the relative base or chain 100% change: T (i) = I (i) - 100%.

# Tip 2: How to calculate the relative performance

relative indicators are intended to characterize the rate of change of the measured value.To find them, it is necessary to know the absolute values ​​of at least two measuring points - for example, on two elevations timeline.Therefore, the relative performance considered secondary to the absolute, but nevertheless, without them it is difficult to assess the overall picture of the changes taking place with the measured parameter.
Guide
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Share one absolute figure to another to get the value of relative indicators characterizing the changes of absolute indicators.The numerator should set the absolute index, which is the current (or "To compare"), and the denominator must be an absolute indicator, which compares the current value - it is called the "base" or "base of comparison."The result of the division (ie a relative indicator) will express how many times more than the current absolute figure or as basic units of account for the current value of each unit of the base.
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When comparing the absolute values ​​have the same units of measurement (eg, the number of howitzers produced), then the resulting calculations relative indicator is usually expressed as a percentage, ppm, or prodetsimille factors.The ratios are expressed as a relative measure if the base rate shall be equal to the absolute unity.If you replace one hundred, the relative rate will be expressed as a percentage, if millions - in parts per million, and if ten million - in prodetsimille.When comparing two values ​​having different measurement units (such as howitzers and population of the country), the resulting relative index is expressed in terms of named (such as howitzers per capita).
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use any calculator to find the numerical values ​​of the relative index.This operation does not require the calculation of any special features, but is a common operation of dividing two numbers, so will fit almost every serviceable calculator.
Sources:
• how to find the absolute change

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