Among the countries that have begun to look for sea routes to Africa and India, were Portugal and Spain.Italian port cities played a leading role in trade with the countries of North-Western Europe.Trade ships crossing the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar moving due north, skirting Pirrineysky Peninsula.Mediterranean was monopolized by the Italians, and the ships of Portugal did not have access to the cities of North Africa.
Since the 14th century, Portuguese and Spanish port city acquired special significance.Went rapid development of trade, new ports required for the expansion of ties.The city began to enter the court for the transfer of cargoes and to replenish food and water.But to master the new sea ro
utes could only Portugal in the Atlantic, as in the east all the way under the control of Italy.The Iberian Peninsula has an advantageous geographical location and was convenient for sending ships to new expeditions.
In 1415, the Portuguese was conquered by the Moroccan port of Ceuta, which was located at the southern end of the Strait of Gibraltar.This port and became a "starting point" for the construction of new sea routes along the west coast of Africa.
Expedition Portuguese Admiral Bartolomé Dias in 1488 reached the southernmost point of Africa - Cape of Good Hope.Rounding the cape, the admiral hoped to go along the east coast of Africa, but the storm patted ship Admiral, and on the ship the sailors mutinied.The admiral was forced to turn to the home.Arriving in Lisbon, he was able to convince them that the road to India is.
By the summer of 1497 was equipped a fleet of four ships, which under the leadership of Vasco da Gama went to explore the sea route to India.Rounding the Cape of Good Hope, the flotilla had lost one ship.
expedition continued its way along the east coast of Africa and entered the port of Malindi, received by the local governor experienced pilot, which led ships to the Indian shores.May 20, 1498 under the leadership of the ships of Vasco da Gama went to the Indian port of Calicut.
Getaway, change the world
Portuguese relations with the local population did not exist so that Vasco da Gama was forced to withdraw the ships in the open ocean in a hurry.The way home was full of difficulties and hardships.In September 1498, Vasco da Gama with the remnants of the fleet returned to Lisbon, but the sea route to India opened the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, a lot has changed in the world.One year later, 13 ships scoured the ocean towards India.
Tip 2: Who discovered Australia
Remember the line from the song Vysotsky: "Remember how the shores of Australia, Cook swam late now?"It is with a light hand of Vladimir Semenovich, many to the question "Who discovered Australia?" Confidently say, "Cook!".And they will be wrong, because at the time when James Cook aboard the "Endeavour" reached the east coast of Australia, the land of the continent have been known to Europeans for more than a hundred and fifty years.And to be eaten by the natives English navigator was not lucky in thousands of kilometers from Australia, Hawaii.So who actually opened the "unknown southern land"?
Dreams of Australia
legend that somewhere far away in the south, one of the world's oceans must be a huge land known since ancient times.It is an ancient geographer, who called this land "Terra Australis", ie "Southern Land" Australia owes its modern name.And though their assumptions were mistaken in many respects, in the Age of Discovery explorers dreamed a lot not only about the way to India, but also the huge southern continent.
In the XV century the Portuguese led by Vasco da Gama discovered the southern route to India and founded their first colony on the shores of the Indian Ocean."The task of maximum" has been performed, and many researchers have flocked to the south of the continent in search of «Terra Australis».They managed to open many islands of Oceania, New Guinea, and is likely to set foot on the land of Australia.
There is a version that Australia found the first Portuguese Cristovão de Mendonça in 1522.However, reliable evidence of its opening has not been preserved.
Whom considered a pioneer?
Today is the undisputed fact that the true pioneers of Australia became the Dutch in the XVII century.The domination of Portugal in the region at that time came to an end, and their place was taken by the Netherlands - one of the most developed and the strongest European powers of the period.In 1605, Dutch citizen Willem Janszoon sailed on the ship "Deyfken" from the port of Bantam in Java.His goal was to study the southern coast of Guinea, but as is the case with other travelers, Christopher Columbus, he found quite what he was looking.An unknown land, on which the team came across "Deyfkena" skirting the northern part of Guinea, was Australia.
Melbourne is located in the territory, which in the XVIII century, bought by John Batman.However, the transaction was invalidated and the city was named Melbourne rather than Batman, as the owner of the land planning.
Willem Janszoon, as Columbus did not understand that he had discovered a huge continent, calling the Australian found Cape York Peninsula, "New Zealand".The true scale of the found became known later.Most likely, Willem Janszoon was the first European to set foot on the ground, "South of the continent."However, a large number of direct and indirect evidence of its opening does not leave historians no doubt that the pioneer of "Terra Australis" should be considered as it was his.
- «Essays on the history of geographical discoveries", IP Magidovich VI Magidovich, Moscow, 1989
- Biographical article about Willem Janszoon
- Project Gutenberg Australia.Biography of John Batman