Oda as a separate genre appeared before our era and at first was a lyric poem, which involves choral performance.Subjects were different.Thus, the ancient Greek poet Pindar (about 520-442 GG BC. E.) In their solemn odes glorified kings and aristocrats who thought therefore, have received the favor of the gods.The concept odic works in those days consisted of hymns, praises, songs of praise in honor of the gods, the Olympic winners, etc.Brilliant compiler considered odes of Horace:

Who among the gods I returned
Togo, who first hiking
and abuse I shared the horror, when the phantom
We drove Brutus desperate?
further development of the ode to a halt, and the beginning of our era, it did not develop as a genre.Even in the Middle Ages, this type of poetry in European literature did not exist.
«resurrected" as the solemn ode poems in Europe during the Renaissance.It became especially popular during the period of European classicism (16-17 cc.).The writing odes devoted a considerable part of his work founder of French classicism Francois Malherbe (1555-1628).The poet praised the absolute power of France.At one stage of the development of creativity odic genre engaged Jean-Baptiste Rousseau.

After Malherbe and Rousseau prominent representatives of the genre of the ode in France were Lebrun, Lefranc de Pompinyan and Lamothe.
believed that Russian literature classic ode brought Antiochus Kantemir.Other literary critics called Gabriel Derzhavin.But they both agree on the fact that the actual term "Ode" was introduced not by them but by Vasily Tredyakovsky his "Ode on a solemn surrender of the city of Gdansk 'is an example of a classic ode to Russian poetry.

Like the ancient Greeks, an ode to Russia was meant to praise someone.Usually, it was told about the famous and great people.As an ode to the genre was high literature, praise and extol the workers or peasants was not accepted.The emperors, empress, their favorites, dignitaries - that they were devoted to the ode.
Despite the great contribution Kantermira, Derzhavin and Trediakovsky in becoming odic genre, genuine odes to the founder of Russian, according to most literary critics, is Mikhail Lomonosov.It was he who adopted as the main lyrical ode to the genre of the feudal-aristocratic literature of the 18th century and outlined its main purpose - to serve and to make the exaltation of the feudal nobility of the monarchy in the person of its leaders and heroes:

silent, fervent sounds,
and ranged prestante light;
where in the world to expand science
deigned Elizabeth.
You heady vortices not dare
roaring, but humbly disclose
are wonderful our time.
Hear in silence, the universe:
Xie hoschet Lira admiration
voice of great names.
Russian poetry is not limited to the solemn, so-called Pindaric ode (the name of the ancient Greek poet Pindar), but also love - anacreontic, moralizing - Horatian and spiritual - Arrangement of the Psalms.Famous writers
odes in Russian literature were Gabriel Derzhavin, Vasily Petrov, Alexander Sumarokov and others.
end of the 18th century marked the beginning of the fall of European classicism and, as a consequence - the loss of the significance of the ode.It gave way to the new at that time poetic genres - ballads and elegies.
Since the late 20s of the 19th century ode almost completely disappeared from European poetry (and Russian as well).Attempts to revive her were engaged Symbolists, but odes were rather successful character styling, not more.
Ode to a new time - it is not as common in poetry, as, for example, in the 17-18 centuries.However, modern poets often turn to this genre to glorify heroes, victory or express enthusiasm for an event.The main criterion for this is considered to be not the form but the sincerity with which it is written work.