Thinking, as a kind of mental activity of people interested in a long time.Even ancient philosophers tried to examine him and to give him an explanation.For example, Plato equated thinking to intuition, Aristotle created a whole science (logic), and cognitive process divided into parts, etc.To this day, representatives of different sciences are trying to learn the specifics of thinking, experimental research and to give a clear definition of the process, but so far it can not be done.
forms of thinking were identified by Aristotle - a concept, judgment and reasoning.Concept - indicated by the word that characterizes the general and the essential properties of a class of objects.It has no clear, abs
tract.For example, the concept of "watch" a common and essential feature - what is the mechanism showing the time.
judgment - is a form of mental activity that reflects the content of the concepts and reflects the phenomena and objects of the world in their relationships.It may be a single, private, common and simple (integral parts are the concepts) and complex (consisting of a combination thereof).General judgment applies to all events or things that united the concept, for example: "All living things need food."Private form affects only part of the objects or phenomena, say: "Not all soils are fertile," etc.In individual judgment we are talking about a single concept, for example: "Peter I - the great reformer."
conclusion based on the analysis and comparison of several judgments called inference.There are two types of reasoning: inductive and deductive.Induction - way of reasoning from the particular to the general, the establishment of rules and laws in the study of individual objects and phenomena.Whereas deduction - is the reverse process, which consists of the knowledge of particular facts on the basis of knowledge of the general laws.
In addition, the person can logical thinking.It is based on the source of true judgments and lead to objective conclusions.This kind of thinking starts with the problem statement.The next stage of the thought process is the analysis of available information.Then construct a hypothesis that is tested in practice.If it is true, the conclusion about a situation or problem, or look for another solution.