- - handle;
- - paper records;
- - periodic system of elements (periodic table).
electrons in the atoms occupy the free orbitals sequence, called the scale of energy: 1s / 2s, 2p / 3s, 3p / 4s, 3d, 4p / 5s, 4d, 5p / 6s,4d, 5d, 6p / 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p.On one orbital can be located two electrons with opposite spins - directions of rotation.
structure of the electron shells is expressed using graphical electronic formulas.To record using a matrix formula.In one cell can be placed one or two electrons with opposite spins.The electrons are represented by arrows.Matrix demonstrates that s-orbital two electrons can be located on the p-orbitals - 6 on the d - 10, f -14.
Consider the principle of the Electronic-gr
aphic formula by the example of manganese.Find manganese in the periodic table.Its sequence number 25, then 25 in the atom the electron is an element of the fourth period.
Record the serial number and the symbol of the element next to the matrix.In accordance with the scale of power sequentially Fill in the 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s levels inscribing two electrons in the cell.Get 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 + 6 + 2 = 20 electrons.These levels are completely filled.
You've got five more electrons and unfilled 3d-level.Arrange the electrons in the cells of the d-sublevel, starting from the left.The electrons with the same spin located in a cell first one.If all the cells are filled from left to add the second electron of opposite spin.At manganese five d-electrons, disposed one in each cell.
Electronic graphic formulas clearly show the number of unpaired electrons, which determine the valence.
Tip 2: How to write an
formula When you create a theoretical and practical work in mathematics, physics, chemistry student or the student is faced with the need to insert special characters and complex formulas.With the Word application from the office suite Microsoft, you can type e formula any complexity.
Open a new document in Microsoft Word.Give it a name and save it in the same folder where you work is to look in the future.
Click the "Insert".On the right look for the symbol π, and next to the words "Formula".Click on the arrow.A window appears in which you can select a built-in formula, for example, the formula of the quadratic equation.
Click on the arrow on the top panel will appear a variety of characters that you may need when writing this particular formula.Change it as you need to, you can keep it.From this moment it will fall in the list built formulas.
If you need to move the formula in the text, which later must be placed on the site, then click on the active field with the right mouse button and choose not professional, and the linear way of writing.In particular, the formula of the same quadratic equation in this case takes the form: x = (- b ± √ (b ^ 2-4ac)) / 2a.
alternate spellings electronic formula in Word - through the designer.Hold the Alt key and at the same time =.You will immediately see the field for writing formulas, and in the top pane to open the designer.Here you can select all the signs that you may need to write equations and solve any problem.
Some characters linear recording can be confusing to the reader unfamiliar with computer symbols.In this case, the most complex formula or equation makes sense to save a graphic.To do this, open the most simple graphical editor Paint: «Start» - «Programs» - «Paint».Then, zoom in the document with the formula so that it took the entire screen.It is necessary that the image was saved highest resolution.Click on the keyboard PrtScr, go to Paint, and press Ctrl + V.
Cut off all unnecessary.As a result, you get a quality image with the right formula.
Remember that chemistry - the science of exceptions.Atoms by subgroups of the periodic system found "breakthrough" of the electron.For example, chromium with the serial number 24 with one electron-4s level becomes d-cell level.Similar effects have molybdenum, niobium and others. In addition, there is the concept of the excited state of the atom, where electrons are paired steamed and moving to adjacent orbital.Therefore, the Electronic formulas and graphic elements of the fifth and subsequent periods secondary subgroup recheck the directory.
- create electronic formula of a chemical element