- Table dissolution acids, salts, bases
acids - are complex substances that consist of atoms of hydrogen and acids residues, for example,Hydrochloric (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3).
grounds - are complex substances, which consist of metal atoms and hydroxyl groups.Water-soluble alkali base called .These include compounds such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH) 2), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and others.Their solubility can be determined by a table as this background material, which, along with the table D.Mendeleev necessarily present in all types of controls, including the exam in chemistry (located in every Kim).
interaction acids with alkalis otherwise called neutralization reactio
n, as a result of the formation of salt and water.The salt may be formed with both medium and acidic.Also substances such interaction can be attributed to the exchange reaction because acids and alkalis s share its constituent parts.
Example № 1. Write the reaction interaction hydrochloric acid s with sodium hydroxide.In this reaction, hydrogen in hydrochloric acid e (HCl) is swapped with the atom of sodium in the alkali - sodium hydroxide (NaOH).The result is a salt - sodium chloride (NaCl), and water (H2O).Thus, alkali neutralized acids y.In this equation, the reaction is not necessary to arrange the coefficients as the number of atoms of each element contained in the composition as the starting materials and reaction products point.HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H2OAnalogichno without coefficients will look equation for the reaction to take if the nitric acid at (HNO3) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) .HNO3 + KOH = KNO3 + H2O
Example№ 2. Write the reaction interaction of sulfuric acid s (H2SO4) with calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH) 2).In this reaction formula 2 hydrogen atoms of sulfuric acid s (H2SO4) menivayutsya one atom of calcium, part of the alkali - calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH) 2).Vrezultate formed salt - calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and water (H2O).Arrange the necessary coefficients by substitution, increasing the number of water molecules to 2.H2SO4 + Ca (OH) 2 = CaSO4 + 2H2O
Example № 3. Write the reaction interaction of sulfuric acid s (H2SO4) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH).If the job is not particularly specified reaction conditions, it is assumed that the salt is formed only medium - in this case, sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) .H2SO4 + 2NaOH = Na2SO4 + 2H2OOdnako if said provided that the reaction occurs with an excess of acid s(or she concentrated), in this case, a sour salt - sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO4) H2SO4 + NaOH = NaHSO4 + 2H2O
When alignment coefficients remember that the number of atoms of each elementstarting materials should coincide with the number of atoms of the elements in the reaction products.
- like sodium hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid