you need
  • Table of chemical elements DIMendeleev
atom of any substance is composed of electron shell and nucleus.The core consists of two types of particles - neutrons and protons.Neutrons have no electrical charge well, that is, the electric charge neutrons is zero.Protons are positively charged particles and have an electrical charge , equal to one.The number of protons characterized by the atomic number of the atom.
electron shell of an atom consists of electron orbitals in which there are different numbers of electrons.The electron - negatively charged elementary particles.Its electric charge -1.
With relations atoms can also be connected to the molecule.
In a neutral atom the number of protons equals the number of electrons.There
fore it charge zero.To determine
ion , you must know the structure, namely the number of protons in the nucleus and the number of electrons in the electron orbitals.
total charge ion obtained by algebraic summation charge s entering into a proton and electron.The number of electrons in the ion can exceed the number of protons, and then the ion is negative.If the number of electrons is smaller than the number of protons, the ion will be positive.
Knowing the chemical element on the periodic table, we can determine its atomic number, which is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of the element (for example 11 from sodium).If one of the electrons leaving atom sodium, the sodium atom is not 11, and 10 electrons.Sodium atom becomes a positively charged ion with a charge th Z = 11 + (- 10) = 1.
denotes a symbol Na ion is a plus on top, in charge of the case and two - two advantages, etc.Accordingly, for a negative ion used "minus" sign.