Guide
1
degree of oxidation - a conditional charge of atoms, calculated on the assumption that all the chemical bonds in the molecule - ion and electron density of each link is completely shifted to the more electronegative element.This notional value smysla.EŃ‘ devoid of physical significance lies in the use of stoichiometric coefficients to find responses to the classification of substances, including complex.It is also used to produce chemical nomenclature and description of the properties veschestv.Na letter indicates the degree of oxidation in the form of Arabic numerals with a plus or minus of the corresponding element in the molecular formula of a compound.
2
few general rules: The oxidation state of an element in the simple substances is nulyu.Summarnaya degree of oxidation in complex substances is zero - this rule is a major in the calculation of oxida
tion components.In the elements that make up the complex oxidation substances expressed by an integer rare isklyucheniem.Vodorod has an oxidation 1 (except hydrides - they -1), oxygen -2 (excluding peroxides (-1) and compounds with fluorine (2)). Some of the elements have the same, constant oxidation state +1 lithium, potassium, sodium, rubidium, cesium, silver;
+2 beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, zinc, cadmium, barium;
+3 aluminum, boron;
-1 ftor.Vychislenie oxidation state comes with the account index standing at the corresponding elements in the mix.
3
Consider primer.H2SO4 - sulfuric kislota.Vospolzuemsya the above rules: * 1 + 2 x + 4 * (- 2) = 0.
x - the degree of sulfur oxidation, we do not yet know it.
From simple linear equation we find it: x = 6.Takim way of hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen is necessary to put down one (in the unit oxidation usually do not write - she meant, so instead of +1 and -1 simply decided to write the + and -), 6 and 2, respectively.