physical properties of nitrogen



Nitrogen - one of the most important chemical elements in nature.It is present in all living organisms and is involved in the reactions between cells and protein synthesis.The Earth's crust it is not very much compared to the atmosphere.Nitrogen forms many minerals and substances that are of great industrial importance.Among them are: sodium (Chilean) and potassium (Indian) nitrate.These substances are used as fertilizers.

Nitrogen occurs in the free state in the form of diatomic molecules.The dissociation energy of these molecules is high enough.At 3000 degrees Celsius dissociates only 0.1% of the total.The nitrogen molecule has two stable isotopes with atomic masses 14 and 15, respectively.The first of them is converted into a radioactive isotope of carbo
n in the upper atmosphere by cosmic radiation.

Chemical properties of nitrogen



Most reactions of chemical elements nitrogen takes place at high temperatures.Only active metals such as lithium, potassium, magnesium, capable of reacting with nitrogen at low temperatures.

nitrogen reacts with oxygen in the atmosphere by passing an electrical discharge.This produces nitric oxide NO, which upon cooling may then be oxidized to NO₂.In vitro NO may be prepared from a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen in intense ionizing radiation.

nitrogen is not directly reacted with halogens (chlorine, fluorine, iodine, bromine).But nitrogen fluorides can be prepared from the reaction of ammonia and fluorine.Such compounds are usually unstable (exception - fluoride, nitrogen).More Rack - oxyhalides obtained by the reaction of ammonia with oxygen and halogens.

nitrogen can react with metals.Since active metals reaction proceeds even at room temperature, with less active metals have a high temperature.In this form nitrides.

If nitrogen (at low pressure) or nitride act powerful electric discharge occurs forming a mixture of the atoms and molecules of nitrogen.This mixture has a large reserve of energy.

Application



nitrogen Nitrogen is used in the manufacture of ammonia, from which then can be obtained nitric acid, a lot of nitrogen fertilizer, and even explosives.Nitrogen in the free state in metallurgy is indispensable for the synthesis of complex alloys and certain substances (nitridokremnievaya ceramics).