Beryllium - a rare element, it is found in alkaline, acidic and sub-alkaline magmas.There are about 40 of its minerals, the greatest practical importance are: beryl, chrysoberyl, helvite, phenacite and bertrandite.This chemical element present in the tissues of many plants and animals participating in the exchange of magnesium and phosphorus in the bone.
beryllium hexagonal close-packed lattice, it has a high heat capacity, and its density is less than that of aluminum.It has a low electrical resistivity, and this property is dependent on the quality of metal and varies considerably with temperature.
mechanical properties of beryllium depends on the texture and grain size, which is determined by the method of processing.Under
pressure appears anisotropy, the metal transitions from brittle to plastic at 200-400oS.
Beryllium is bivalent in compounds, it has high chemical activity.In air, this metal is stable thanks to a solid oxide thin film of his, but if heated above 800 ° C is rapidly oxidized.With water, it hardly interacts if the temperature is below 100C, but readily soluble in hydrochloric, hydrofluoric and dilute sulfuric acid.
beryllium fluoride reacts at room temperature with a nitrogen - at 650 ° C, forming a nitride-carbohydrate - at 1200 ° C, as a result of this reaction a carbide.With hydrogen beryllium hardly reacts at all temperatures.
In industry metallic beryllium is obtained by processing of beryl hydroxide or sulfate.Beryl sintered chalk or lime treated with sulfuric acid, the resulting sulfate leached with water and precipitated with ammonia.
blanks for products from beryllium prepared by powder metallurgy - it is ground and then subjected to hot pressing in vacuum at 1140-1180oS.Pipes and profiles produced by hot (at 800-1050oS) or warm (at 400-500oS) extrusion.
Beryllium is found in many alloys based on magnesium, copper, aluminum and other nonferrous metals, it is used for surface berillizatsii steel.This chemical element emits intense neutrons when bombarded with alpha particles, allowing it to be successfully used in neutron sources based on polonium, plutonium, radium and actinium.