So, before starting the device foundation "break" the plan of the house.We must start at its outer perimeter.In an alignment stakeout axes at a distance of 1-1.5 meters from the edge of the trench or excavation alleged hammer or bury wooden poles.Make sure that they would have been on top 10-15 cm above the floor of the future.
In those places where cross stakeout axis, drive nails or make cuts for attaching fishing line or wire.The so-called cast-offs can be made from the columns, which are connected on top boards.Thereby you also document not
only the stakeout axis, but also the outer edge of the foundation and walls.
Using a triangle with sides ratio 3-4-5, set the angles.For a final check squareness foundation plan, measure the diagonal.To determine the horizontal level (the same marks on the corners of the building), use gidrourovnya or ordinary garden hose with glass tubes at the ends of which are pre-filled with water.
Take one label for the source and using gidrourovnya transfer it to other sides and angles, so you get a horizontal line along the perimeter, from which lead the countdown markers during earthworks, installation of foundations, erection of externaland interior walls.
Before starting the digging of trenches or excavation, with all the proposed construction area, remove the topsoil of the earth and brought him into the garden or vegetable garden.Provide site flooding rainwater for that arrange drainage ditch.Methods of excavation depends on the type of foundation, soil, and groundwater.
To lay the pier foundation, make round holes with vertical walls.They are resistant to collapse even if the ground water are high.Such holes can be dug manually by using a garden auger, which dig a hole center and then remove soil with a shovel gradually expanding it.
for strip foundation dig a trench and pit taking into account the steepness of slopes.Remember, leave wall 1-1.2 meters high, it is possible for dense clay soils and only in the absence of groundwater.In other cases, with the help of boards Provide temporary support for the excavation walls.
As a rule, you need to arrange the foundation immediately after the completion of trenching and excavation, start doing it from the lower levels.If water gets into the pit, before laying the foundation to remove it.At different elevations of laying make ledges height of no more than 50 cm.
For dry and malovlazhnogo soil, the foundation for low-rise building can be made from traditional materials, while deeply lay it should not be,enough to 0.7m.