Tip 1: How did the culture

term "culture" emerged in the era of ancient Rome.Initially, he had a definite value, describing the actions related to the cultivation, growing and harvesting.Later, especially during the Renaissance, it was interpreted in a much broader sense.

Examples of cultural activity among primitive people



The term "culture" refers to the spiritual life of man, his creativity, commitment to education, education, creation, and its system of moral evaluations, attitudes, traditions and customs.

life of our ancestors in the Stone Age was extremely heavy and very dangerous.They have a long time did not know how to use fire, had only the most primitive tools.The average life expectancy then was only about 22 years.But even in the harsh era there were people who left their distant descendants trace their cultural activities, some moral values.Archeologists have found many cave paintings depicting hunting scenes and domestic life.Of course, most of them are quite primitive, but the important fact of their presenc
e.

In later times, as people learned to use fire, make better tools, as well as mastered agriculture, their lives much easier.Now they do not have to spend almost all the time and energy to food production.Accordingly, the traces of their cultural activities relating to this period, come across more often.And it's not only rock paintings, and played on a much higher level, but also all kinds of crafts - figurines, ornaments. lot of pictures and ornaments have been found in caves Kromanon, les combarelles, Altamira and a number of others.

flowering of culture in the ancient states



As the further development of society and replacing primitive communal system, slave, grew significantly and the level of culture of the people.Built large, beautiful buildings for residential purposes, and for worship.Temples were decorated with statues of gods, murals.

jewelers creating jewelry from precious metals and stones.The priests of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia studied the movement of celestial bodies, creating an astronomical calendar.The exceptionally high level achieved in the culture of ancient Greece. Many works of ancient Greek architects, sculptors, masters of artistic expression entered the golden fund of human culture.

Romans conquered many countries, including the Greek State policies, preserve and enhance their cultural heritage.So there was a culture.

Tip 2: When did Russia

study of the history of his native country is very important for an understanding of its present.For example, you must know the history of his native land.There are different versions of to what point you can start counting in Russian history.
When did Russia



resettlement of Slavonic tribes in what is now the European part of Russia began during the Great Migration and generally completed in the VII century BC.By this time the appearance of settlements on the site of the first Russian cities - Kiev and Novgorod.However, the state as such did not exist.Krivichi, vyatichi and a number of other nations formed an alliance of tribes, remaining generally quite independent.

According to the "Tale of Bygone Years", an ancient Russian chronicles attributed to the XII century, in 862, the Slavic tribes tired of internecine conflict, decided to call the Vikings to establish princely power.Arrived Prince Rurik and his brothers and his warriors and established his authority in Novgorod.However, the message leaves a lot of questions.And chief among them is whether there is already a state on the territory of Russia before the Vikings.There is no consensus among historians on this point, but is most common following point of view - calling Vikings was only an element in the creation of the Russian state and the various prerequisites for it have appeared before.

It is still unknown who were called Vikings.In the XVIII century there was a theory that they were the Normans.Most modern historians stick to this version.However, there are those who believe that Rurik and his squad were still members of the Slavic tribes.

himself Rurik rules only a small area around Novgorod.The union of the Slavic territories began when Oleg, who became ruler after the death of Rurik.Oleg Origin also remains controversial, but it is known that he was not the direct heir of Rurik.In 882, Oleg made a trip to Kiev, seizing and lying on the ground his way.He moved to the capital city of the captured state.From this period you can start counting the history of Kievan Rus - public education, which later gave rise to the Moscow Russia, Russian kingdom and the Russian empire.


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