first time the term "socialism" used P. Leroux in "Individualism and socialism", which refers to the mid-19th century.Under socialism understand set of currents that push as key principles of freedom, justice and equality.These include, in particular, Marxism-Leninism, reformism, social democracy, Soviet and Chinese models of socialism and so on.

Socialism - is not only ideology, but also the social order.It is believed that it should come to replace capitalism.

origins of socialism



first source of socialism was the work of socialists.In particular, T. Mora (work "Utopia") and Tommaso Campanella (the work of "City of the Sun").They defended the need to transform the prevailing order in society, arranged on a collective basis.

only in the first half of the 19th century there were t
hinkers who criticized capitalism and defended the interests of the working class.Among the founders of socialism were Saint-Simon, and Robert Owen Sh.Fure.They proposed the concept of social transformation at the core of which should be public property and social equality.This has been called for as utopian socialism, asthey are his supporters believed that such radical reforms can only be achieved through education and training.

basic ideas of socialism as an ideology



final form of socialism as an ideology was only in the second half of the 19th century and was associated with names such as Marx and Engels.Marxism was then proclaimed by the ideology of the proletariat.The fundamental ideas of Marxism are:

- Socialism is the first phase of communism, which will replace capitalism;
- private property and exploiting class must be destroyed;
- approval of public property and the dictatorship of the proletariat;
- the leading role of the ruling party and the lack of political pluralism;
- the absence of alienation from the results of their labor;
- social equity and justice.

In Russia the ideology of Marxism has been slightly modified in the framework of Leninism.In particular, it is the thesis of the possibility of the establishment of socialism in one country, as well as the transition from capitalism to socialism.

According to the proponents of socialism, private property is the basis for the emergence of social inequality, so it should be eliminated, and it will come to replace public (collective) ownership.

Socialists in favor of a strong state, which is an essential element of economic transformation.The Socialists have their own model of an ideal society in which equality and justice triumph, and there is no oppression of man by man.That is public property, according to the Socialists, must contribute to the harmonious development of personality.