origin of the Decembrist movement
Movement revolutionaries who were later called Decembrists, had its own ideology.It was formed under the influence of the liberation campaign of the Russian army in Europe.Battling with Napoleon's army, the best representatives of the Russian officer corps acquainted with the political life of other countries, which is sharply different from the regime that prevailed in Russia.
Many members of the nobility and the progressive intellectuals, who joined the opposition movement, were also familiar with the works of the French Enlightenment.The ideas of great thinkers were in
tune with the thoughts of those who expressed dissatisfaction with the policy of the government of Alexander I. Many progressive-minded opposition hatched plans for the adoption of the constitution.
ideological spearhead of the opposition movement was directed against the tsarist regime and serfdom, which became brake progressive development of Russia.Gradually, the country has formed a network of conspirators, waits for the right moment to start the presentation.These conditions occurred in December 1825.
After the death of Alexander I, the direct heirs to the throne was not.On the crown could claim two brothers of the emperor - Nicholas and Constantine.The latter had a better chance to ascend the throne, but to become an autocrat Constantine was not going to, because I was afraid of intrigue and palace coups.Within a month of days the brothers could not decide which of them will lead the country.As a result, the burden of government decided to take over Nicholas.Oath ceremony was to take place the day 14 December, 1825.
This day conspirators considered the most suitable for the armed uprising.Staff movement decided to nominate am sympathetic to the opposition forces to the Senate Square in St. Petersburg.The main forces of the rebels were not to happen oath, other parts at this time going to seize the Winter Palace and the arrest of the imperial family.It was assumed that the fate of the king chooses the so-called Great Cathedral.
But participants in the uprising were disappointed: Nikolai was sworn in before the scheduled time.Confused Decembrists did not know what to do.As a result, they have built a subordinate part in Senate Square around the monument to Peter I and repulsed several attacks of the troops who supported the king.Yet the evening 14 December the uprising was crushed.
Nicholas I took all measures to punish the Decembrists.He was arrested a few thousand rebels.The organizers of the uprising brought to justice.Someone begged the king for forgiveness, but some of the Decembrists to the end showed courage.Five ringleaders of the rebellion were sentenced to be hanged.Rileyev, Pestel, Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Ants-Apostol and Kakhovsky were executed in the summer of 1826 in the Peter and Paul Fortress.Many participants in the December performances have been for many years exiled in distant Siberia.