Classic nationalism and its principles
term nationalism has mostly negative interpretation.Contribute to the media, which at its extreme nationalism understand form.In particular, ethno-nationalism, with its extreme forms - fascism, chauvinism, xenophobia and so forth. These currents have focused on the fact that the nationality of one has superiority over another and are essentially anti-human.
core values of nationalism are the loyalty and devotion to their nation, patriotism, political and economic independence.As a political movement, it aims to promote the interests of the nation in its relations with the state.At the same time supporters of traditional nationalism condemned intolerance to other nations.On the contrary, the ideology in favor of bringing together different sectors of society.
Among the basic principles o
f nationalism also includes the right of nations to self-determination;the right of nations to participate in the political process;national identity;nation as the highest value.
Nationalism is a relatively new ideology, it came only in the 18th century.Its specificity is that it has no outstanding ideologists and thinkers who would set out its principles in a concise form.But despite this, he had a very important influence on social and political life.Some of his ideas were embodied in liberalism, conservatism, socialism.
Classic nationalism emerged as a form of protest against national oppression and injustice.He contributed to the liberation from colonialism, the various forms of discrimination and the establishment of an independent national state.In particular, thanks to the spread of nationalism were created dozens of independent states in Asia, Africa and Latin America.The national-democratic ideology is widespread in the countries of the former Soviet Union.Thanks to her, were formed by Lithuania, Ukraine, Georgia and others.
radical forms of nationalism
But nationalism is not always a positive nature.History knows of instances where he acquired destructive.Thus its ideological content complemented by contrasting nations, developing a sense of superiority of one nation over the other, a recognition of the same nation and the desire to ensure its privileges at the expense of others.
ideology of fascism arose in Italy in 20-30 years.20th century.It is implemented most consistently in the life in Nazi Germany.Then, the main goal of fascism was the establishment of the rule of the supreme Aryan race.The key postulates of fascism is the recognition of the nation as the highest generality, which is based on kinship;division of all nations in the higher and lower.At the same time the German Nazi Aryan recognized and exclusive and subject to the extermination of inferior peoples.
While fascism was condemned by the decision of the UN attempts to rehabilitate stop.Neo-Nazi organizations now operate in many countries, particularly in the countries of the former Soviet Union, which caused serious damage to fascism (Russia, Ukraine).
milder version of nationalism is chauvinism.It is characteristic of the great states, which conduct an aggressive policy to expand their territories.The defining features of this ideology - the recognition of the exclusive property of the nation, justify their actions noble objectives of democratization and so forth. Chauvinism has its own methods and means, which have exclusive features depending on the type (English chauvinism, Russian chauvinism).