Social Democratic, conservative, liberal and Catholic model
In the matter of the number of models of social policy politicians still have not come to a definite opinion.There are several classifications, each of which is considered to be equally valid.However, the most used are the following classification.According to her, there are 4 models of social policy: social democratic, conservative, liberal and Catholic.
key criterion for evaluating these models is considered the likelihood of achieving a positive solution of two problems: the problem of unemployment and poverty.
The social democratic model focuses on the social redistribution of income thr
ough fiscal policy.And also on the operational employment of the population.
The conservative model considerable emphasis is placed on employment, but social redistribution is not considered important.In this model, the most pronounced phenomenon of the "working poor."
to the liberal model characterized by a low level of employment, but rather high - social redistribution.In the Catholic
(also called Latin) model of both employment and social redistribution of paid very little attention from the government.
Beveridzhskaya and Bismarckian model
Another frequently used is the classification of the Commission of the European Community (EC).In this classification, two main models of social policy: Beveridzhskaya and Bismarck.
to Bismarck model is characterized by the establishment of rigid connection between the level of social protection and a successful career.In this case, the social benefits are realized in the form of insurance premiums.In other words, social protection in this model is not dependent on the state budget.
The model is based Beveridzhsoy postulate, according to which any person, regardless of his belonging to the active population, has the right to security (albeit minimal) in the event of illness, old age or other kind of restriction of their resources.
financing such a system comes from the state budget through taxes.And in this case, implements the principle of national solidarity and the concept of distributive justice.
Currently continues to form a new pan-European model of social policy.It is based on the principle of combining economic efficiency and social solidarity.
The emphasis in this model is on the balanced development of social policy in Europe, as well as the interests of all EU Member States.Implemented the process of reorientation of social programs on the universal level of the individual.This process helps to implement social policies more effective and less expensive for the state, because the aid is granted only to those who really need it.