old family model, where many children were born, and the head was the breadwinner husband and wife play the role of housewives and educators of children in many developed countries, a thing of the past.Now in Russian families, as well as in Europe, USA, Canada, Japan, Australia, born one or two children, and some families do not have children.
sharply reduced infant and child mortality, life expectancy has increased at the same time.All this has led to the fact that significantly increased the percentage of older people and, consequently, reduce the relative number of young.And it is fraught with very unpleasant consequences.Therefore, in countries such demographic policy is the promotion of the full fertility.This is achieved by applying a set of measur
es: economic (lump-sum payments at delivery, child allowance, paid maternity leave, subsidized loans and credits for young families), advocacy (policy of family planning, clarification harm the health of women by abortion, appeal to authoritychurch), administrative law (protecting the rights of working mothers, etc.).
In many developing countries, the preservation of the traditional model of a large family in reducing child mortality has led to the opposite effect.The population there is growing steadily and rapidly, which entails massive unemployment, and in some cases, hunger, often takes the form of the disaster.Therefore, in such cases, the demographic policy is to promote the rejection of many children, health education (many people in those countries are still not even aware of contraception), and sometimes harsh prohibitive measures.For example, China still has a rule: "One family - one child" for the violation of which is followed by severe sanctions.It was introduced from the beginning of the 70s of the last century, when it became clear that the tempo of fertility resources in China will not be enough to feed and employ ever-growing population.Of course, there are exceptions to this rule, for example, residents are allowed to have two children if one of the parents was the only child in his family.