origins of liberalism



concept of liberalism (from the Latin liberalis - free) first appeared in the literature in the 19th century, though as for social and political thought it was formed much earlier.Ideology has arisen in response to the powerless position of citizens in the conditions of absolute monarchy.

main achievements are the development of classical liberalism "social contract theory" and the concept of natural rights of the individual and the theory of separation of powers.The authors' theory of social contract "were D.Lokk, Montesquieu and Jean-JacquesRousseau.According to her, the origin of the state, civil society and the rights based on an agreement between people.The social contract implies that people are partially waive sovereignty and trans
fer it to the state in return for the provision of their rights and freedoms.A key principle is that the legitimacy of the management body should be obtained from the consent of the governed, and it has only those rights that are delegated to it by citizens.

Based on these characteristics, the supporters of liberalism did not recognize the absolute monarchy, and believed that such power corrupts, asit has no limiting principles.Therefore, the first Liberals insisted on the advisability of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial.Thus, a system of checks and balances and there is no room for arbitrariness.This idea is described in detail in the writings of Montesquieu.

ideological founders of liberalism developed the principle of natural inalienable rights of the citizen, among them - the right to life, liberty and property.Owning them does not depend on membership of any class, as given by nature.

Classical liberalism



In the late 18th and early 19th century, a form of classical liberalism.Its ideologues referred Bentham, Mill, Spencer.Proponents of classical liberalism focuses on not public and individual interests.And the priority of individualism was advocated by them in the extreme form of radical.This differs from the classical liberalism of the form in which it existed originally.

Another important principle became antipaternalizm which suggested minimal government intervention in the private life and the economy.State participation in economic life should be limited to the creation of a free market for goods and labor.Freedom was perceived by liberals as a core value, which is the main guarantee is privately owned.Accordingly, the highest priority is economic freedom.

Thus, the basic values ​​of classical liberalism is the freedom of the individual, the inviolability of private property, and minimal government involvement.In practice, however, this model was not conducive to the formation of the common good and led to social stratification.This led to the spread of the neoliberal model.

Modern liberalism



In the last third of the 19th century began to develop a new trend - neoliberalism.Its formation is due to the crisis of liberal scholars who went to the closest approach to the conservative ideology and not take into account the interests of the widespread layer - the working class.

As the leading virtues proclaimed the political system of justice and the consent of the governed and managed.Also neoliberalism sought to reconcile the values ​​of equality and freedom.

neoliberals no longer insisted that the man should be guided by self-interest, and should contribute to a common good.Although personality - is the ultimate goal, but it is only possible with the close relationship with the community.The man began to be perceived as a social being.

In the early 20th century as it became apparent the need for public participation in the economic sphere for the equitable distribution of wealth.In particular, the functions of the state is the need to create a system of education, the establishment of minimum wages and control over working conditions, provision of unemployment or illness, etc..

In contrast, they are the libertarians who argue for the preservation of the basic principles of liberalism - free enterprise, andand the inviolability of the natural freedoms.