Leadership exists in any society, and it is a constant feature.The leader - a person for whom this community recognizes the right to take the most important decisions.

approaches to the definition of political leadership

Leadership exists in any society, and it is a constant feature.The leader - a person for whom this society recognizes the right to take the most important decisions.

interest in leadership is even the ancient historians.They paid attention to the dominant political leaders, seeing them as the creators of history.In the Middle Ages it was dominated by the idea of ​​God's chosen leader.

contributed significantly to Nietzsche, who formulated two theses, which have been further developed in political psychology.The first point conce
rns the nature of leadership as irrational, instinctive force, linking leaders and followers.The second - a man ascribes to outstanding quality, making it the superman.In the future, many psychologists insisted on irrational origins of political leadership.

first holistic concept of political leadership were formulated in the late 19th - early 20th centuries.Regarding the nature of political leadership, there are different opinions among scientists, depending on the emphasis in a particular factor of leadership.There are points of view, according to which the lead is classified as a type of power.Others understand leadership as a managerial status, decision-making.Political leadership is seen as a business and in which the leaders of competitive exchange their program for senior positions.

formal and informal leadership

are two types of leadership: it "leadership face to face", carried out in small groups, and "remote leadership" or leader of the leaders.In the first case, all parties involved have the opportunity to interact directly with each other, and in the second, they may not be personally familiar.In the second case an essential attribute of a leader is to institutionalize its role, ie,he should hold any position of power.Thus, his personal qualities may fade into the background, especially if the power position is not elective.But informal leadership in the group reflects a willingness and ability to perform the functions of leadership, as well as recognition for him and the right to leadership by members of the public.

typology of political leaders

There are different approaches to the classification leaders.The most famous was the theory of Max Weber, who singled out the traditional, charismatic and bureaucratic leadership.Traditional leadership is characteristic of patriarchal societies.It is based on the habits of obedience to the leader, monarch, and so on. The legal leadership - leadership is impersonal.In this case, the leader is only fulfills its function.Charismatic leadership of personal leadership qualities and his ability to unite the people and lead them.

Leadership can be authoritarian or democratic with Tochi of decision-making style.By the nature of the activities of the leadership can be a versatile and situational when leadership manifested in a certain environment.Leaders can be classified as a leader and reformer, a revolutionary realist, romanticism, pragmatism and ideology and so forth.

theory of personality traits leader

most common theories are theories of political leadership personality traits, situational and situational personality theory."Trait theory" emerged under the influence of F.Galtona biologist, explained that leadership on the basis of heredity.This theory considers the political leader as a carrier of noble qualities that elevate him above others and allowing it to take the appropriate position in power.

Supporters approach believed that the observation of the leader will determine the universal list of qualities and ensure identification of potential leaders.American scientists (E.Bogdarus, K. Baird, E.Vyatr, R.Strogill et al.) Were isolated ten qualities of a leader: mind, will, initiative, sociability, sense of humor, enthusiasm, confidence, organizational skills, friendliness, and others. Withtime researchers identified traits began to coincide with a common set of psychological and social qualities.However, many great leaders did not possess all the qualities of this set.

Situational leadership theory

Situational leadership theory emerged to address the shortcomings of the theory of the devil.Under her leadership - a product of the situation.In different situations are distinguished individuals who excel at their inherent set of qualities.Iethe fact that a person becomes a leader only associated with external factors, rather than his personal qualities.

concept of the decisive role of followers

Proponents of this concept propose to consider the dominant leadership relationship "leader - followers".According to this theory the leader - no more than a tool of social groups.A number of researchers perceive the leader as a "puppet."It does not take into account the necessary quality to him as a leader - independence and initiative.

Influence slave on the leader can be positive: political activists largely create the image of a leader and serve as a link between him and the broad masses.The downside of this approach is that it underestimated the independence leader.