essence and objectives of privatization in Russia
Privatization is a process of transition of the state to private ownership.Its foundation was laid in Russia in 1991. In legislation dealing with the legal aspects of privatization in Russia, were assigned the following objectives of the process:
- ensuring equality of different forms of ownership;
- de-monopolization of production facilities;
- balancing income social groups;
- creation of an effective class of owners, the redistribution of income and assets;
- the formation and development of the stock market in Russia. Key objectives of privatization in Russia have not been met - did not happen major restructuring of the economy and did not appear Institute effective ownership, and most of the resources were concentrated in the narrow circle of persons.
Among the methods of privatization were determined by competitive sale of businesses and assets, sale of businesses through auction, sale of shares (shares of companies), the redemption of property companies.
stage of privatization in Russia
Privatization in Russia was conducted in two stages.Among them - the voucher privatization (1992-1994 gg.) And cash privatization (1995-1997 gg.).It can be said that the privatization process is carried out today.However, he did not pass such a rapid pace as in the 1990s.
features of the voucher privatization became operational processes, as well as the introduction of free privatization checks (vouchers).In total for 1994, it was privatized in 2/3 of all commercial enterprises, and working in the field of household services. The main disadvantage of the voucher method of privatization was its low yield for the budget, which is augmented in 1992 by 0.04 billion rubles.Most of this money has depreciated by inflation.
Vouchers were distributed in 1992 to the population for a nominal fee.Their nominal value amounted to 10 thousand. P.Vouchers were issued for an aggregate amount of 1,400 billion rubles., Representing the estimated value of all property in the Russian Federation.
estimated head SCI ABChubais voucher corresponded to cost two cars "Volga".The market value of shares that could be purchased for vouchers, depended on the company and the region.Thus, in the Nizhny Novgorod region voucher can be exchanged for 2,000 shares of "Gazprom" in the Moscow region - 700 shares.
second stage of privatization, called the money, began in 1995 and continues today.He focused on the transition from state ownership to the donation of its sale at market prices.According to the stated objectives of privatization it was to ensure the growth of enterprise efficiency.
In practice, the second stage of privatization has also become a failure, becausethe budget has been collected about 7.3 trillion p.Most of these funds has been received on the loans for shares.The result was also a sharp decline in GDP, increased social inequality and stratification of social classes occurred.