Politics - one of the social sciences, which aims to explore the political component of society.It is closely linked to other social sciences.In particular, such as sociology, economics, philosophy, theology.Politics integrates some aspects of these disciplines, asthe object of her study is crossed in the part that is related to political power.
Like any other science political science has its own object and subject.Among the objects of study fall into the philosophical and ideological foundation politicians, political paradigm, political culture and the way its values and ideas, as w
ell as the political institutions, the political process and political behavior.The subject of political science are the laws of the relationship of social actors on the political power.
Politics has its own structure.It includes such science, as a theory of politics, the history of political doctrines, political sociology, the theory of international relations, geopolitics, political psychology, conflict, Ethnopolitology and so on. Each of them focuses on a particular aspect of political science.
Politics has its own methodology (conceptual approaches to the study), and methods.Initially, political science was dominated by the institutional approach, which was aimed at the study of political institutions (parliament, political parties, the institute of presidency).Its disadvantage is the fact that he paid too little attention to psychological and behavioral aspects of the political sphere.
So soon the institutional approach was replaced behaviorism.The main focus has been shifted towards the study of political behavior, as well as the specifics of the relationship of individuals over the power.The key research method was observation.Behaviorism also brought in political science quantitative research methods.Among them - a survey, interviewing.However, this approach has been criticized for an excessive fascination with the psychological aspects and insufficient attention to the functional aspects.
50-60 years has spread structural-functional approach, which focused on the relationship between economic and political systems, political activity and the regime, the number of parties and the electoral system.A systematic approach for the first time began to consider politics as an integral self-organizing mechanism, which aims at the distribution of political values.
today gained popularity in political science theory of rational choice and comparative approach.The first is based on selfish, rational nature of the individual.Thus, any of his actions (such as the desire for power or the transfer of powers) are intended to increase their own profit.Comparative Politics involves comparing similar phenomena (eg, the political regime or the party system) in order to identify their strengths and weaknesses, as well as to determine the most optimal models of development.
Politics performs a number of socially important functions.Among them - the epistemological, involves obtaining new knowledge;value - the function of value orientation;theoretical and methodological;socializing - to help people in the realization of the essence of the political process;predictive - forecasting of political processes, and so forth.