After the collapse of the Soviet Union, newly independent Ukraine, through which the main gas pipeline from Russia to Europe was at a crossroads: on the one hand, Ukraine has become a separate, free from external control by the state, on the other handit was a brotherly country in the post-Soviet space.Hence, Ukraine has historically preserved benefits for the purchase and transit of fields in Russia natural gas.
However, both Russia and Ukraine have chosen the purpose of his subsequent development of capitalism.Therefore, the realities of the market economy gra
dually took its toll.Despite substantial discounts on the available supply natural gas to Ukraine in 1995 it has accumulated a very large debt for a $ 1 trillion rubles.
OAO "Gazprom" announced the suspension of gas supplies to Ukraine, however, offered to solve the problem of the Ukrainian debt due to the transfer of the property Ukrainian gas pipeline companies.
March 10, 1995 following Russian-Ukrainian talks, bylo prinyato decision o gaza continuing supplies to Ukraine, provided that the Ukrainian side for mesyatsa provide the repayment schedule of debt for gas.Schedule of payment of debts and has not been granted, but for political reasons Ukraine is not disconnected from the gas.
After the first Maidan
In 2004, Ukraine started the "orange revolution", during which there has been the desire of Ukraine to the European Union, as well as from the mouth as the rank and file of the Maidan, and some prominent politicians have repeatedly sounded the anti-Russian (sometimes openlychauvinist) rhetoric.Nevertheless, Russia embraced these changes very restrained.
In March 2005, after the "orange revolution" the new Ukrainian government declared "Gazprom" on the need to increase the rates for the transit of Russian gas to Europe through Ukraine.Cancellation of preferential rates for the transit of gas to Russia in fact it would have meant an increase in budget revenues in Ukraine.
However, the "Gazprom" has agreed to raise the tariff for transportation, but in turn is linked with the abolition of the preferential price of gas for Ukraine in the amount of $ 50 and the appointment of the average European price for gas in the amount of $ 160-170 / mcm.m³.
Ukrainian government categorically rejected the proposal, insisting on the extension of the preferential treatment former gas agreements with Russia.Persistent intransigence of the Ukrainian side, and not particularly concealed anti-Russian rhetoric has led in December 2005 to tighten Russian requirements.The price for gas increased to $ 230 / thousand.m³.
Then, in connection with the failure to sign contracts for the supply of gaza for the next year, from 1 January 2006 podacha gaza on the Ukrainian market was discontinued.But since the main supplies of Russian gas to Europe through pipelines are carried out on the territory of Ukraine, the latter directed by the leadership during the first days of 2006 was carried out on the Russian side inconsistent selection export gas to meet their own needs.It is immediately noticed European consumers.
January 4, 2006 Gazprom and the Ukrainian government still managed to negotiate the price of gas, which amounted to $ 95 / mcm.m³.This price was made possible by mixing dorogogo Russian and Turkmen deshevogo gaza.However, after some time, Turkmenistan and Ukraine filed a claim for underpayment.
After the second Maidan
Nevertheless, Ukraine's gas debt continued to increase.In 2010, Russia made concessions;It signed a new agreement on the cost of procurement and tranzita gaza through Ukrainian pipelines;rate reduction of 30% in this agreement was linked to the extension of the lease agreement the Black Sea Fleet naval base in Sevastopol until 2042.However, due to the civil war in Ukraine, which began because of another "color revolution", the entry of the Crimea on the results of the popular vote in the Russian and the coming to power in Ukraine, the new government in 2014, which Russia considers illegitimate, Kharkiv agreements no longer in force.
Currently, Ukraine's gas debt to Russia amounts to over 120 billion rubles (3.35 billion dollars).Against the background of Ukrainian civil war, the rise of nationalism and outright anti-Russian rhetoric.Diplomats also a new Ukrainian authorities are not ready (perhaps due to more limited experience) to negotiate more favorable terms, as it did at the time representatives of other European countries.Because of this, Russia has canceled all the discounts on gas to Ukraine, and now the official price of $ 380 / thousand.m³.Although the price for the transit of gas through Ukraine has also increased.