game - it is a process that involves two or more opposing sides.Each participant of the game uses a particular strategy that leads him to the losses or gains.

emergence of the theory of games



Scientists first started thinking about the theory of games three centuries ago.Wider dissemination of this theory was in the middle of the XX century, when Oskar Morgenstern and John von Neumann wrote the book "Theory of Games and Economic Behavior."Initially used game theory in economics, but later began to be used in anthropology, biology, cybernetics, etc.

Content theory



game requires two or more participants, the behavior of each of which is associated with a few different developments and is not strictly defined.The parties participating in the game have conflicting interests.This behavior is interconnected, as success on the
one hand lead to the failures of others, and vice versa.In addition, gameplay implies certain rules followed by the warring parties.

Prisoner's Dilemma



The concept of game theory can be expressed by a classic example, which is called the "prisoner's dilemma".Imagine that the police seized the two criminals, and the investigator offers each of them a "pass" of the other.If one arrested will testify to another, then let him go.But his accomplice sit for 10 years.If both prisoners will remain silent, then each of them sentenced to only six months in prison.If both give each other indications, it will receive two years.What strategy to choose arrested if each of them knows what the other will do?

For each of those arrested would seem that in any case it is better to "surrender" accomplice.If the silent accomplice - it is better to "surrender" and released.If he is also cooperating with the investigation - it is also better to "surrender" and receive 2 years.But if the offender will think about the common good, you will realize that it is better to remain silent - then there is a chance to get a total of 6 months.

Applying game theory



There are several types of games - cooperative and noncooperative, a zero-sum and non-zero, parallel and serial, etc.

Using game theory to simulate the economy, for example, the situation of strategic interaction.If the market there are two or more competitors - there is always a game.In game theory fit and the relationship between employees of the company - owners, managers and junior staff.Game theory has been successfully used in applied psychology, simulation cybernetic algorithms, physics and many other branches of science.