culprit of instability of the government in Russia of the 18th century, oddly enough, was Peter I. In 1722 he published "The decree of succession", which stated that the decision of the heir to the throneIt takes the ruling emperor.However, Peter himself had not left a will.
first coup was organized by a close associate of Peter the Great, Alexander Menshikov.Thanks to him, ascended the throne of Peter's widow Catherine I. uneducated Latvian peasant, as luck would have become of the Russian empress, it was completely unable to govern the country.He became de facto ruler intelligent and enterprising Menshikov.
reign of Catherine I, however, was short-lived.
After her death, the emperor was declared the grandson of Peter the Great - Peter II.Menshikov decided to consolidate his power, betrothed of the young emperor his daughter Maria.However, representatives of the old aristocratic families - Dolgoruky and Golitsyn - was able to affect Peter II and to achieve the Menshikov disgrace and exile.Their celebration was short-lived - in 1730, the emperor caught cold and died.
New ruler of Russia was the niece of Peter I Anna Ivanovna.Golitsyn family erected it on the altar, hoping that they will be able to rule on its behalf.Anna Ioannovna forced to sign a "condition" that greatly limited its power in favor of the Supreme Privy Council.But, having arrived in Moscow, the first thing the new-found the Empress broke "condition."It was a terrible period for Russia "Biron".He became de facto ruler of the favorite Anna Ivanovna - Duke Biron.At the court of embezzlement and bribery flourished.The Empress wanted a luxury, for the maintenance of her yard left huge at the time, the amount of 3 million gold rubles.
Anna Ivanovna died in October 1740.He was proclaimed Emperor of the chest baby Ivan VI - son of her niece Anna Leopoldovna.About a year Anna Leopoldovna was regent for minor Emperor.However, on behalf of the beneficial owner of Count Osterman, who brought a lot of good Russian.In particular, agreements were signed with Britain and the Netherlands, have contributed to the development of international trade, stopped ruinous war with Turkey.
Osterman knew of the impending new revolution, and warned about Anna Leopoldovna but frivolous regent did not attach any importance to this.As a result, in November 1741 came to power, Elizabeth, enthroned faithful to the memory of Peter the Great Guards Preobrazhensky Regiment.Foreign influence at court ended.Elizabeth reforms undertaken were addressed for the benefit of the Russian nobility, but the flip side was their intensified exploitation of serfs.
After the death of the empress in 1761 inherited the throne, her nephew Peter III.An avid fan of all German, the newly-born emperor immediately concluded a separate peace with Prussia, she returned all the territories conquered by the Russian army.This led to a coup in which husband ascended the throne of Peter III - Catherine II.Her reign was a time of stabilization of the Russian statehood and finished the era of palace coups.