There are three main versions of the origin of place names.One tells that the place of execution translated into Slavic Hebrew means "Golgotha" - a small cliff, the place of execution, where a plurality of stacked skulls in ancient Jerusalem.The structure of the place of execution for its outline resembles the shape of the skull.Another version says that there is often carried out executions - "cut their foreheads" or "folded their foreheads."Although in reality on Calvary took place only two executions: in public life deprived Pustosvyat Nikita and Stepan Razin.The most common theory is that the place of execution owes its name to its location only: Vasilevsky descent, where the monument is located in the XV-XVI centuries called "forehead".
There are also some difficulties in
determining the date of the creation of the Execution Ground.According to tradition it was erected in 1521 in honor of deliverance of Moscow from the Tatar invasion.According to some ancient documents for some time it was believed that it originated in Moscow in 1540s.More specifically, there is the manuscript of a speech still young Ivan the Terrible, he allegedly said to the place of execution in 1549.Upon further study of the document, this version has been questioned - he was drafted in the early 17th century and are not historical facts, but a political pamphlet.The very first official mention of the site dates back to 1599 Calvary year.It is described in the "Piskarevskoe chronicler."
over a century, the place of execution was the main tribune of Moscow, where state decrees were proclaimed, held public events.Twice a year, the king necessarily represent the people of his heir.The event lasted until the heir of his age.There is often on display presented relics of saints.Here begins the processions here patriarchs blessed kings sprig of willow.After the capital was moved from Moscow to St. Petersburg place of a skull lost its meaning in the life of the city and the state.
In 1751, by decree of the Senate of the place of execution was restored under the supervision of chief architect of Moscow DVUkhtomskogo.The second restoration, or rather the restructuring took place in 1786, during which the place of execution has been shifted slightly to the east of the original location, taking a modern look.Previously, it was covered with bricks and wooden bars and a tent on poles.
Currently, the place of execution is part of the Red Square, and the tourists have a tradition of throwing a coin at him to come back here again.