Guide
1
One of the first ancient philosophers was Aristotle.His interests included physics, logic, politics, psychology and logic.In the philosophy of the scientist attempted to create a comprehensive teaching on the basis of the world, to which it refers the matter, its forms, causes and mechanisms for the purpose of being.A lot of philosophical principles and concepts, open and introduced into science by Aristotle used his later followers.
2
his own philosophical school founded the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.As a typical representative of the idealist trend in the science of human wisdom, he was looking for ways to eliminate t
he evil and suffering that accompanied the life of the people.Plato called rulers to study philosophy since only accumulated wisdom of this science can properly dispose of the destinies of people and the rights of States.
3
Heraclitus philosophical views laid the foundation for the emergence of the idea that the world is in constant motion.It belongs to the Greek philosopher saying that in the same river twice is impossible to enter.The basis for the development of philosophy considered harmonious movement of fiery particles.
4
founder of all modern philosophy of science historians say the Frenchman René Descartes.He carefully studied the natural sciences, has created analytic geometry, discovered a method named after him origin.Descartes was an adherent of philosophical dualism, defining it as the power of the human mind over the body shell.Power of humanity, thought the philosopher, gives only the endless power of reason.Descartes thought the foundation of existence.
5
philosophical justification of the idea of ​​freedom gave the English philosopher John Locke.He is considered the founder of the principles of liberalism and humanism, which laid the foundation of modern Western society.All the people thought that a philosopher by nature have equal rights before the law.Modern epistemology and social philosophy owe their emergence is Locke.
6
through the adoption of modern science in the scientific method were laid by the English philosopher Francis Bacon.Rejecting the political career of a scientist fully immersed himself in the study of natural phenomena that have tried to summarize the positions of philosophical knowledge.Bacon was convinced that philosophy should be separated from the theological concepts.
7
German philosopher Immanuel Kant became famous for his work "Critique of Pure Reason."This is one of the most important philosophical works, which have developed ideas about knowledge.The philosopher attempted to combine rational and empirical methods of obtaining knowledge about the human reality.Kant's views were the basis of classical German philosophy.
8
pinnacle of classical philosophy was the study of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.Creatively developed the ideas expressed by the predecessors of the developing world, he founded his own dialectical method.According to the views of Hegel, all the phenomena of reality, naturally pass through the stages of origin, formation and decay.Slim and logically perfect system of Hegelian dialectics, which had its base idealism, later became the foundation of dialectical materialism.