money in ancient times
Once the economy was only barter when the goods are exchanged directly for goods, money as such did not exist.However, to do so over time it became inconvenient as a division of labor.In order to exchange on a barter basis, it was necessary to find someone that would require those services, which is the second person could afford.For example, an actor, to be cut, it was necessary to find a hairdresser who was interested in the work and the role of the actor.
To facilitate the exchange of goods, people come up with some equivalent, through which it was possible to calculate and pay.Some countries have used the ancient cowry shells, they were used as money from the peoples of Africa, Oceania and Asia.Even ancient civilizat
ions such as India, China and Japan have enjoyed such "money".
One form of expression of value before the invention of money served cattle.With the discovery of copper and bronze of these metals began to make the first coins, then the equivalent of the value of gold began to speak, and started to make money from it.Over time, the coins purchased a round shape, the same weight, have become easier to use.Their main parameters of solvency and have already protected by the state.With the expansion of commodity and services to a large number of coins to carry it became uncomfortable, and people began to look for a replacement.
Around the mid-18th century North America and Europe is rapidly developing trade relations and to ensure the turnover required a lot of money in cash.And it was some inconvenience due to their heavy weight and volume.The need to replace the coins on lighter banknotes was very acute.As a result, an appeal was introduced paper money.Originally they were a bank bills, they guarantee payment of a certain sum to the bearer of metal coins.
In Russia the issue of paper money in 1744 considered and rejected.Banknotes appeared in Russia only in 1769, when Catherine II.Banknotes while already released with security elements in the form of embossing and watermarks, so protect them against counterfeiting.At the present stage banknotes begin to displace electronic money with which to make payments, accrued salary.It is a payment instrument of modern society.