discovery of the concept of "chemical element»
word "element" is used even the philosophers of antiquity - such a concept can be found in the writings of Cicero, Horace, Ovid, it meant a part of something whole.Ancient scholars thought that the world consists of a set of elements, but before the opening of this chemical laws was still far off.Only in the XVII century, the first time the word "element" was used in the modern sense, although the first chemical elements have not yet been opened.But scientists have recognized the fact that new materials are obtained by changing the set of elements that make them.The old idea of the elements, principles, which consists in the statement that a new substance can be adding or subtracting certain qualities (hardness, dryness, fluidity), began
to retreat into the background - so replacing alchemy came chemistry.
One of the first term "chemical element" in close to the modern value used the English physicist and chemist Robert Boyle, who called so irreducible to other parts of the corpuscles that make up all the body.He believed that the elements are different in shape, weight and size.
In 1789, the chemist Lavoisier in one of his works brought the first list of the chemical elements, although the precise definition of this concept has not yet been given.He singled out the most simple, in his view, the body which can not be expanded to other parts.Some really consistent chemical elements - sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, but the list also included the so-called light and caloric source of thermal phenomena.
In 1803 John Dalton first introduced the concept of "chemical element."He extended the idea that all atoms of a particular element are identical in their characteristics.Simple substances are considered daltons, composed of one kind of atoms, and the complex of several species.He first pointed out that the atomic weight largely determines the properties of the elements.
in 1860 was given the first accurate determination of the atom and the molecule that has completed the formation of the concept of "chemical element."Today, this term refers to a set of atoms with the same nuclear charge, and the same number of protons.There are chemical elements in the form of simple substance or a singleton.
opening of the first chemical elements
many chemical elements were discovered long before the concept was described.In ancient times it was known about the gold, silver, iron, copper, tin, zinc, sulfur.In the Middle Ages, phosphorus was detected, while in open platinum XVIII century, nitrogen, oxygen, manganese and other elements.The properties of hydrogen watched Boyle, Paracelsus and other alchemists and chemists, and Lomonosov first described the production of hydrogen.The name was coined by the chemist Lavoisier, who is also included in the list of the simplest hydrogen tel.In the XIX century, it was discovered a few tens of elements: magnesium, calcium, palladium, silicon, vanadium, bromine, helium, neon, and others.Last for today chemical element discovered in 2010 - is Ununseptium.