The thyroid gland produces hormones and hormone-yodotironiny calcitonin.The first class of hormones include thyroxine and triiodothyronine.The majority of the synthesized thyroxine to triiodothyronine converted because it is better perceived receptors.
Yodotironiny affect the functional activity of the body, almost all organs and systems.Receptors of these hormones are attached to strands of DNA or nearby.Upon contact with the thyroid hormone receptor starts the process of formation of intracellular proteins.
Thyroid hormones increase the rate of metabolism in the whole organism.Simultaneously, the decay rate increases protein.Noted the intensification of the activity of the brain, the endocrine glands are activated, the process of actively growing in adolescence.
sufficient amount of thyroid hormone in the body stimulates the growth of the number of mitochondria in cells, mitochondria are a likeness of power plants of the cell.This leads to the formation of ATP - the source of cellular energy.Thyroid hormones increase the activity of ion transport across cell membranes.
hormone calcitonin stimulates the reduction of calcium levels in the blood plasma.It is synthesized by the so-called C-cells of the thyroid gland.These cells are the rudiments of special glands of fish, reptiles and birds.
Calcitonin is a peptide of 32 amino acids.He begins to actively produce admission of calcium in the body.Calcitonin desired effect is achieved in two ways, an instant and long-lasting.
The first method is a sharp decrease in bone cells the ability of osteoclasts dissolve bone.This leads to a delay of calcium in bone, capable to exchange it.This mechanism facilitates the rapid exchange of detained and eluted calcium.
second method leads to an effect through quite a long period of time.It is to reduce the formation of new osteoclasts.It mediates the reduction and the number of bone cells of the osteoblast function which is the formation of bone tissue.
result of reducing the activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts is very little change in the level of calcium ions in the plasma.These two mechanisms of effects of calcitonin.Also, calcitonin has little influence on the management of calcium in the renal tubules and intestines.
- functions of thyroid hormones