Guide
1
inventor of the telephone has long been considered Alexander Graham Bell, who in 1886 filed with the Patent Office a request for "apparatus which transmits it via electric waves."Bell was a professor of physiology of speech in Boston, and in 1875, together with his assistant Thomas Watson tried to create a so-called harmonic telegraph - a device that can transmit multiple telegraph messages on the same line.It was quite an actual idea, as telegraph lines at the time began to experience serious congestion.
2
idea machine was simultaneous transmission of multiple signals at different frequencies, but during one of the tests of thin metal plates welded to the terminal.Thomas Watson tried to correct the problem, cursing s
oftly under his breath, and Alexander Graham Bell was in the next room at the same machine.Suddenly he heard a murmur Watson came over the wire.
3
It turned out that the same record has come to play the role of a membrane that reacts to the sound of voices.Under it was a magnet and membrane vibrations affected the magnetic flux, causing current line changes to the rhythm of the oscillations.At the other end of the line there was the opposite effect, and Bell heard the voice of his assistant.
4
Within a year, he worked on improving the telephone, and in 1986 it showed at the exhibition.Strictly speaking, the operating principle of the phone has not changed: sensitive membrane all as human speech is converted into pulses which are transmitted by wire, and the other end speaker converts them back into sounds.
5
In 2002, the US Congress recognized that the real inventor of the telephone should be considered as an Italian emigrant Antonio Meucci who in 1860 published a press note about the invention of the machine, which is able to transfer it by wire.An application for a patent for his invention, he filed in 1871, ie 5 years earlier Bella, but because of the confusion with the documents and the conflict with Western Union was able to defend its right to the invention the device only in 1887, when the term of a patent has already expired.
6
Moreover, the United States recognizes that the basic idea of ​​Bell also borrowed, as his work was done under the auspices of Western Union.However, in 1889, Meucci died, and in 1893 - expired patent Alexander Bell, so further clarification had only historical significance.