matter waves, also known as de Broglie waves, are a key element of all matter, including the atoms that make up our body.One of the first and the most important findings of quantum physics is the assumption that the electrons have a dual nature.They can be both wave and particle.It soon became obvious that the whole matter has the same nature.That is why the material and partly, has the same properties as the electrons, which are particles.
However, the wavelength of the particles of matter is very small, and in most cases they are barely noticeable.For example, the wavelength of matter of the human body is about 10 nanometers.This is much smaller than can be seen with the use of modern technology.
theory and its proof
concept of waves of matter was f
irst proposed by the French physicist Louis de Broglie.He merely extended the hypothesis put forward by Albert Einstein, Max Planck and Niels Bohr.Boron primarily studied quantum behavior of hydrogen atoms, while de Broglie attempted to extend these ideas to determine the wave equation for all kinds of matter.De Broglie created the theory and presented it as a master's thesis, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1929.It was the first time that the Nobel Prize was awarded for the thesis.
equations, known as de Broglie's hypothesis, describe the dual nature of waves and particles.These equations show that the wavelength is inversely proportional to its momentum and frequency, but is directly proportional to the kinetic energy.Energy is a relative value that depends on the units.Thus, particles with low momentum, such as electrons at room temperature have a de Broglie wavelength - about 8 nanometers.Particles with an even lower pulse atoms such as helium, at temperatures only a few nanokelvin will have a wavelength of only two to three microns.
de Broglie's hypothesis was confirmed in 1927, when scientists Lester Germer and Davisson Clinton bombed nickel plate slow electrons.As a result, the experience turned the diffraction pattern, which demonstrated wavelike characteristics of electrons.De Broglie waves can be seen only under certain conditions, so that the electrons are used to detect them, should have a small acceleration.Since 1927, the undulating nature of the various elementary particles was demonstrated and proved empirically.