Polonius was one of the first open radioactive elements, he found Pierre Curie and Marie Sklodowska-Curie in 1898.It got its name in honor of Poland - the birthplace of Maria Sklodowska-Curie.Polonium was first isolated from the resin uranium ore.
Polonius - a rare element known for its two crystalline modifications: a low-temperature form of a cubic lattice at temperatures above 36 ° C stable form with a rhombohedral lattice.
Polonium is present in small amounts in seawater, it may collect a variety of marine organisms.This item enters the human body with food, and then spread evenly over separate bodies.
in high concentrations is highly toxic polonium, to work with it use special boxes.Toxicity polonium was investigated in experiments on
animals, it causes changes in the composition of peripheral blood and reduces life expectancy.The animals developed tumors of various organs.Biological effects of polonium in small concentrations insufficiently studied.
By chemically similar to tellurium polonium, in the compounds of this element has an oxidation state -2, 2, 4 and 6.Polonium oxidized in air, it reacts with the acid solution to produce ions.When reacting with hydrogen gives the element a volatile hydride.
heating metal vapor polonium at 400-1000 ° C, obtained polonidy.Polonium dioxide can exist in two crystalline modifications: the temperature below 54 ° C with stable yellow form a face-centered cubic lattice, with heating dioxide becomes red tetragonal lattice shape.Polonium monoxide is a solid black color, it is formed by spontaneous decomposition of selenite or sulfite polonium.
in gram quantities of polonium prepared by irradiation of metallic bismuth with neutrons, the process takes place in a nuclear reactor.The microscopic quantities it can be isolated from the waste processing of uranium ores.It is obtained by extraction, electrodeposition, sublimation and ion exchange.Polonius also formed upon irradiation of bismuth by protons in a cyclotron.
Polonium is used as an energy source in nuclear-powered spacecraft, as well as in portable devices.It is used for the manufacture of sealed neutron sources.