One of the most important features of carbon atoms is their ability to form strong bonds with each other.Because of this, the molecules that contain a chain of carbon atoms that are stable under ordinary conditions.
study of organic compounds with the help of X-rays showed that the carbon atoms are arranged in a straight line and a zigzag.The fact that four carbon atoms valency directed in a certain way in relation to one another - their mutual position corresponds to the lines emanating from the center of the tetrahedron and going to its corners.
Not all organic carbon compounds are considered, for example, carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulfide is traditionally considered to be inorganic.It is
believed that the prototype organic compound is methane.
in organic molecules chain of carbon atoms can be either open or closed.Derivatives of the first type is called open-chain compounds, and others - cyclic.
Hydrocarbons - a compound consisting only of carbon and hydrogen atoms, they form rows.They each term can be produced by adding the previous groups.Such series are called homologous, they are distinguished from each other in the first term.For example, hydrocarbons belonging to the homologous series of methane is its homologs.
members of the same homologous series resemble each other chemically.For example, methane homologues characterized by the same reaction as that for him, the only difference is in the ease of their course.
Physical constants of homologues changed quite naturally.For a homologous series of methane is accompanied by an increase in molecular weight increase of the boiling point and melting.Such patterns are usually stored for other rows, however, with respect to the densities, they are sometimes reversed.
One of the main features of the flow of organic reactions - the vast majority of organic compounds are not subjected to electrolytic dissociation.The reason is the low polarity relationships as valence bonds of carbon and hydrogen and various metalloids strength close to each other.It is manifested in a relatively low boiling points and melting of most organic substances.
Another feature is that the time required to complete the reaction between organic compounds is often not measured in seconds or minutes, hours, and the reactions occur at an appreciable rate only at elevated temperatures and,generally do not reach the end.