word "glacier" was established by analogy with the French word "voice", which, in turn, is of Latin origin and means "ice".Glacier - a huge cluster of eternal ice, which often moves slowly across the surface of the earth moving under its own gravity.Glacier can be called only those ice masses that have existed for a relatively long period of time.They are formed in places where the temperature rarely rises above 0 ° C mark.Snow, freezing rain and other deposits accumulate, forming a glacier, and the melting is slower than the accumulation of ice.The glacier is formed very slowly, over decades and centuries, little by little.The result is a huge mass of very hard, compacted ice: its characteristics it is very different f
rom the usual ice formed on the surface of ponds.The formation of ice is called glaciation and studying these processes and all that is connected with the glaciers glaciology science.
glaciers vary in shape and size, as well as other features.There are glaciers slopes, peaks, valleys, cover, gornopokrovnye, shelves and many other species.Geophysical classification separates these masses of ice in the polar, subpolar and temperate - depending on the climatic situation.
most famous glaciers
Most of the glaciers on the planet is at the poles, but some also exist in tropical zones - in mountainous areas.Glaciers are found on all continents except Australia.They are formed at very high altitudes, usually above 5-6 thousand meters above sea level.
Glaciers cover nearly all of Greenland - up to 75% of its area - and all of Antarctica.In the southern mainland the largest number of ice - the largest reserve of fresh water on the planet.Here there are glaciers thickness up to 5000 meters.Off the coast of Antarctica, the ice is constantly separated from the array to form icebergs.
Other famous glaciers spread across the planet.Baltoro - one of the most famous, as it has the greatest length: the length is about 62 kilometers.Located Baltoro in Pakistan, it is surrounded by the mountains of the Karakoram and is located at an altitude of 3400 meters above sea level.
Kilimanjaro Glacier is neither size, nor any other features.But this is a unique phenomenon - it is located near the equator, in the heart of Africa.It is located on the top of the highest African mountain Kilimanjaro.Scientists have found that it was formed more than eleven thousand years ago, but today, because of the warming gradually diminishes.Now an area of about two square kilometers.