Opening cells made English scientist Robert Hooke in the mid-17th century.Studying the structure of cork under a microscope, he discovered that it consists of bubbles separated by partitions common.The sections of living plants, he found the same cell.His observations R. Hooke described in the work "Micrographics, or some physiological descriptions of tiny particles with a magnifying glass."
Later studies conducted by scientists M. Malpighi and N. Grew.In their work cell is indicated as an integral part of the fabric.However, Dutch researcher Antoni van Leeuwenhoek spent observing single-celled organisms (ciliates, bacteria).Gradually formed idea of ​​the cell as the elementary body.
Numerous studies have helped T. Schwann in 1838 to make some generalizations - to formulate the cell theory of the structure of organisms.This theory is the foundation of sciences such as embryology, histology and physiology.
provisions of cell theory is still not lost their relevance.Since its inception, the theory has been added and is proof that all living things - is one.
All forms of life can be divided into two superkingdom by type of structure components of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Prokaryotes (pre-nuclear) - simple in structure and arose early in evolution.Eukaryotes (nucleated cells) have a more complicated structure and appeared later than prokaryotes.
cells of all living organisms are organized by a single structural principle.From the environmental cell is separated plasma membrane.The cell contains cytoplasm, which houses the organelles, cell inclusions and genetic material.Each organelle in the cell belongs to its special role, and in general they determine the cellular activity.
Prokaryotes - a cell that does not have a cellular nucleus and inner membrane organelles.Exceptions are flat tanks in photosynthetic species.For prokaryotes include bacteria, cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and Archaea.The main contents of the cells of a prokaryote - sticky granular cytoplasm.
eukaryote - a cell having a cell nucleus, which is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane.In eukaryotic cells, there is a system of internal membranes that form, in addition to the core, a number of other organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, etc.).In addition, the vast majority are permanent intracellular symbionts-prokaryotes - the mitochondria, and in algae and plants - as well plastids.
Science is not known how and when the first cell on Earth.The earliest fossils of cells found in Australia.Their age is estimated to be 3.49 billion years old.Nor is it known what substances were used for the construction of the first cell membranes.