This chemical element known since the 1st century BC, when the uranium oxide craftsmen used in the manufacture of the yellow glaze that covers the ceramic.A "pioneer" the name of the element in 1789 is considered the German Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who pulled out of Saxony brought some metal-ore resin material, which he decided to call in honor of one of the known planets of the solar system.Then, in the 1841st, who worked in France, the chemist Eugène Melchior Peligot scientifically proved that a known substance - not a new element, and the oxide UO2.The same scientist was able to get and pure uranium.In the future, the experience of French colleagues picked Mendeleev, who gave a special place in uranium invented table.
Natural uranium color - silver-white an
d glossy, with a very heavy metal.At the same time, in pure form it is somewhat softer than steel, is quite ductile, easily bent and has a small paramagnetic properties.Physicists account for three crystal modifications of the chemical element.
range of oxidation of uranium - from 3 and up to 6: 3 without gibroksida oxide and is a strong reducing agent;4 gives the oxide UO2, without gibroksida;5 - also without an oxide and hydroxide disproportionates in water;6 gives the oxide UO3 hydroxide and UO2 (OH) 2, has an amphoteric character and is fairly stable in air and water.
Uranus has a unique and great heat-capacity.So one of his ton is on the property of 1.35 million tons of oil or natural gas.The largest application received this chemical element isotope 235U, which has samosderzhivayuscheysya nuclear chain reaction.It is this isotope used in nuclear reactors and in the manufacture of nuclear weapons.For example, for a reactor with a capacity of 1000 MW, which operates with 80% load and generates 7000 GW / h per year needed 20 tons of uranium fuel, which is produced from approximately 153 tons of natural raw materials.
Speaking of uranium mining on the planet.According to the estimates of geologists, its reserves in the earth's crust is about 1000 times greater than the existing quantity of gold and the world 30 times - the potential reserves of silver.This uranium is almost similar to a similar indicator for lead and zinc.Usually it is extracted from the soil, rocks, but contains uranium in seawater.The potential is already explored deposits is around 5.5 million tons.