All topographical plans and maps have a scale, which necessarily appear in their legend - explanatory inscriptions.In the physical sense, it is the ratio of the line length on the map to the same line in the field.Such plans and topographical maps show the objects in the exact proportions, given the scale.On the plans and maps of scale is indicated in numerical form, as a fraction, the numerator of which is always one and the denominator - a numerical value that indicates how many times the size of the object on a map is smaller than the size of the object is not the terrain, for example, 1: 10,000, 1:250000 etc.Sometimes with a numerical scale in the map legend and point linear scale, which is a line with the price of each divisio
n in kilometers or meters.
The speech is usually not mentioned numerical and a named or verbally, out, more convenient to understand.For example, the aforementioned numerical scale in this case be specified as: one centimeter hundred meters or one-half centimeter to two kilometers.The larger the scale is, the smaller the denominator of the numerical scale, the more accurate the measurements carried out on the map.
unit on topographic plans and maps produced in scale.To the plan are those cartographic materials that have a large scale, to the cards - smaller.Because the maps are displayed larger areas than on plans to create cards accounted elipsovidnaya shape the earth's surface, and the central part of the map is displayed with almost no distortion, and the edges are transformed based on the scanning plane.
in Russia in order to standardize cartographic products of various scales, to create plans used numerical scale of 1: 5000, 1: 2000, 1: 1000 and 1: 500.Normally, topographic plans required for highly specialized purposes.They are used in land use, forestry, agriculture, urban development.When creating maps using the standard range of small scale 1: 1 000 000 1 500 000 1 200 000, 1: 100 000, 1:50 000, 1:25 000, 1:10 000 This cartography is widelyuse for the purposes of education, governance, economic and political analysis.
Previously, topographic maps, the scale of which was larger than 1:50 000 belonged to the information constituting a state secret.Currently secrecy lifted from them.